Paragraph essay writing help, ideas, Sample Essay Conclusion Planning Your Essay Introducing Your Essay Expressing Your Main Points Concluding Your Essay Community Q&A Expository essays are often assned in academic settings. In an expository essay you need to consider an idea, investate the idea, explain the idea, and then make an argument. Introductory paragraph. The introductory paragraph should also include the thesis statement, a kind of mini-outline for the essay. This is where the writer grabs the.
WritingFix Writing When you are asked to design the expository essay, consider you have been asked to act as a teacher or expert in custom essays. In your expository essay you present other person's - point of view without expressing your opinion in essay writing. The success of your essay depends on your careful planning and organization. You must be able to: emphasize important points, separate the thesis and its supporting arguments, and be objective when sharing the ideas with the readers. As a rule expository essays are written in the second person (you). We will list below the most common types of conclusion: Restatement of the argument (gives a reader larger perception of the subject significance). Statement of your contribution (makes the essay not so abstract). Sharing with the reader the next step in the research/argument. Writing Genres Model Expository/Informative Lessons lessons, resources, and ideas from one of the NNWP's inservice workshops
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My Essay Geek - Online Custom Essay RADICAL INNOCENCE: The Romantics valued innocence as something pure, wholesome, fulfilling, natural, and individualistic. They saw it as antithetical to the corrupting influence of civilized conformity and the heartless, mechanized, industrialized, materialistic society of the Enlightenment. As Emerson put it, "the simple genuine self against the whole world" was the movement of the Romanticism, and radical innocence was its essence. The state of innocence was thought to be the ideal one for humanity. Radical innocence was the ability of an adult to maintain a child-like sense of wonder, faith, and goodness in spite of being aware of the cruelties, injustices, and heartaches of the world. The term has become something of a catchphrase in modernist and postmodernist writings. See for instance, Yeats' quotation below: Considering that, all hatred driven hence, The soul recovers radical innocence And learns at last that it is self-delighting, Self-appeasing, self-affrighting, And that its own sweet will is Heaven's will. RAISONNEUR (French, "Reasoner"): A character in continental literature whose purpose is similar to that of a chorus in Greek drama, i.e., this choric figure remains at a distance from the main action and provides a reasoned commentary about what takes place. However, a raisonneur doesn't necessarily sing like the chorus, and the character appears in other RASH BOON: A motif in folklore and in Celtic and Arthurian literature in which an individual too hastily promises to fulfill another character's request without hearing exactly what that request is. For instance, in the first tale in REALISM: An elastic and ambiguous term with two meanings. (1) First, it refers generally to any artistic or literary portrayal of life in a faithful, accurate manner, unclouded by false ideals, literary conventions, or misplaced aesthetic glorification and beautification of the world. It is a theory or tendency in writing to depict events in human life in a matter-of-fact, straightforward manner. It is an attempt to reflect life "as it actually is"--a concept in some ways similar to what the Greeks would call mimesis. .] suggests jackets off, sleeves rolled up, 'no nonsense'" attitudes toward literary art (773).(2) Secondly and more specifically, realism refers to a literary movement in America, Europe, and England that developed out of naturalism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Typically, "realism" involves careful description of everyday life, "warts and all," often the lives of middle and lower class characters in the case of socialist realism. Although realism and the concern for aspects of verisimilitude have been components of literary art to one degree or another in nearly all centuries, the term realism also applies more specifically to the tendency to create detailed, probing analyses of the way "things really are," usually involving an emphasis on nearly photographic details, the author's inclusion of in-depth psychological traits for his or her characters, and an attempt to create a literary facsimile of human existence unclouded by convention, cliché, formulaic traits of , sentiment, or the earlier extremes of naturalism. In general, realism seeks to avoid supernatural, transcendental, or surreal events. This tendency reveals itself in the growing mania for photography (invented 1839), the tendency toward hyper-realistic paintings and sculpture, the continuing rise of the popular prose novel, the growth of "realism" in philosophical movements, and in the increasingly realistic stage productions during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It tends to focus as much on the everyday, the mundane, and the normal as events that are extraordinary, exceptional, or extreme. The movement contrasts with (and is often used as an antonym for) literary forms such as the romance, science-fiction, fantasy, magic realism, mythology, surrealistic art, modernism and postmodernism. Note that the earlier literary movement known as naturalism is often used as a precursor and antonym for realism, even though both literary movements share many similarities. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between naturalism and realism. Some writers are classified as part of both movements. Personally, I distinguish between them by noting how naturalism goes out of its way to obsessively and grimly point out the limitations of human potential. Realism shares this concern, but seems less obsessed with this point. My distinction, however, is one not generally accepted by literary critics. Often, writers like Thomas Hardy are said to be both naturalistic and realistic, for instance. Examining the wide variety of writers called "realists" at one time or another shows how flexible the term is. These writers include such diverse artists as Mark Twain, Flaubert, Balzac, Zola, Guy de Maupassant, Tolstoy, Gogol, Gorki, William Howells, William Burroughs, Thomas Hardy, and Norman Mailer. Dramatists normally considered realists include Henrik Ibsen, George Bernard Shaw, and Strindberg. One personal aside--for any computer users reading this who are working with speech recognition software, my wife has found that artificially imitating an "RP" accent almost doubles her computer's consistency in speech recognition for voice commands--at least when working with Macintosh software! German scholar Hans-Robert Jauss in the late 1960s was the primary advocate. The central concern in this theory is called a "horizon of expectation," i.e., that a reader's experience of textual meaning will dramatically alter depending on the time and place of the RECONSTRUCTION: A hypothetical earlier form of a word that probably existed, but for which no direct evidence is available. Linguists normally mark reconstructions by placing an asterisk in front of them. For instance, the Indo-European word REFRAIN: A line or set of lines at the end of a stanza or section of a longer poem or song--these lines repeat at regular intervals in other stanzas or sections of the same work. Sometimes the repetition involves minor changes in wording. A refrain might consist of a nonsense word (such as Shakespeare's "With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino" in the song from ), a single word (such as "Nevermore" in Poe's "The Raven"), or even an entire separate stanza that is repeated alternating with each stanza in the poem. If the refrain is meant to be sung by all the auditors listening, such as in Burns' "Auld Lang Syne," the refrain is often called a chorus. Examples are found in the Egyptian REGIONAL LITERATURE: Literature that accurately seeks to portray or is associated with a particular geographic region or people. Often regional literature is set within a particular area, and the writer or poet tries to capture the customs, dialect, behavior, and historical background of that region. Eudora Welty and William Faulkner are often held up as examples of Southern regional writers generally. More specifically, Appalachian poets include Ron Rash, Danny Marion, Lynn Powell, and Rita Sims Quillen. RELIC: The physical remains of a saint or biblical figure, or an object closely associated with a saint, biblical figure, or a miracle. Sample relics might be Saint Veronica's veil, a sandal of the Virgin Mary, the skull of John the Baptist, a hair or fingernail of the disciple Mark, a bone from Saint John the Divine, a splinter or fragment from Christ's cross, or the lance that was embedded in Christ's side. In medieval Christianity, such relics were thought to be powerful, holy items imbued with divine potency. In Christian belief, the spirits of the saints continued to exist after their deaths, and these spirits would eventually return to their bodies after God resurrects their physical forms on the judgment day. Since the spirits still existed, however, they could theoretically interact with the physical world. It was thought that the spirits of these saints continued to be connected to their physical remains. Thus, possessing a part of Saint Julian's body would ensure that the spirit of Saint Julian would linger near that body-part, and be close at hand to aid the possessor. When a medieval Christian wanted divine intervention, he might pray near the relic and ask that saint to intercede on his behalf. [An important note for confused modern Protestants--in medieval Catholic doctrine, "intercession" does not mean worshipping the saints to God on the living individual's behalf, much like a modern Protestant might ask his or her neighbor to pray for him. Many non-Catholics do not understand the distinction, and they accordingly accuse medieval Christians of idolatry.] Medieval churches usually included one or more relics under, on, or within the altar, and shrines might be built around immobile relics. These relics were considered especially valuable, and they were often sealed in gold or silver containers, encrusted with gems, or placed inside silken reliquary purses. Often special objects such as a bishop's staff or a king's crown might be constructed with a minor relic inside it. 800 CE) was supposedly designed so that its hilt contained two splinters of the true cross. With poor communication between regions, certain confusions were bound to occur. Three different medieval churches were built to house three different "true skulls of John the Baptist." In the fourteenth century, it became increasingly common for con-artists to sell fake relics to unsuspecting victims. Chaucer writes of this practice in his depiction of the Pardoner in his Canterbury Tales. There, the Pardoner merrily sells pig-bones, which he claims are the bones of saints, to other travelers. Probably the most famous relic in Arthurian legends is the Holy Grail, variously described in Christian iconography as being (1) the cup from which Christ drank at the Last Supper, (2) the cup used to catch the blood that spurted from Christ's side after the Centurion Longus stabbed him, (3) the actual spear Longus used to stab Christ, or alternatively in German legends (4), a mystical stone providing endless food. (1) The term originally described a period of cultural, technological, and artistic vitality during the economic expansion in Britain in the late 1500s and early 1600s. Thinkers at this time and later saw themselves as rediscovering and redistributing the legacy of classical Greco-Roman culture by renewing forgotten studies and artistic practices, hence the name "renaissance" or "rebirth." They believed they were breaking with the days of "ignorance" and "superstition" represented by recent medieval thinking, and returning to a golden age akin to that of the ancient Greeks and Romans from centuries earlier--a cultural idea that will eventually culminate in the Enlightenment of the late 1600s up until about 1799 or so. The Renaissance saw the rise of new poetic forms in the sonnet and a flowering of drama in the plays of Shakespeare, Jonson, and Marlowe. The English Renaissance is often divided into the Elizabethan period--the years that "Good Queen Bess" (Queen Elizabeth I) ruled--and the Jacobean period, in which King James I ruled. (The Latin form of James is Jacobus, hence the name Jacobean). Typically, we refer to this period as the Renaissance, often with a definite article and a capital R. You can click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in chronological order with other periods of literary history. ) is any period in which a people or nation experiences a period of vitality and explosive growth in its art, poetry, education, economy, linguistic development, or scientific knowledge. Historians refer to a Carolingian renaissance after Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 800 AD. Medievalists refer to an "Ottonian renaissance" to describe the growth of learning under the descendents of Emperor Otto I. Haskins speaks of a "little renaissance" or a "Twelfth-Century renaissance" to describe the architecture, art, and philosophy emerging in France and Italy in the late 1100s. Even in the twentieth century, American scholars often refer to a "Harlem Renaissance" among African-American jazz musicians and literary artists of the 1930s and an "Irish Literary Renaissance" among Irish writers, to name but a few examples. The capitalization in these specific cases varies from writer to writer.: Japanese linked verse--a poetic dialogue formed by a succession of waka in which poets take turns composing the poem as a party-game. The rules for the games were supposedly laid down in 1186 CE by Fujiwara Sadaie (1162-1241) and Fujiwara Sadatake (c. The first three lines have a set pattern of 5/7/5 syllables. One poet writes these three lines, then passes his poem to another person. That person then writes two lines of 7/7 syllables. The next three lines of 5/7/5 are written by a third person, and so on, until a lengthy poem of a hundred lines or so results. Of these long composite poems, the first three--called the hokku, are always the most important. The renga eventually develops into the renku (see below), and the hokku of these two poetic forms ultimately evolves into the haiku in the19th century. RENKU (also called haikai renga): An earthier, humorous variant on the courtly renga introduced by Iio Sogi, Yamazzaki Sokan, and Nishiyama Soin. While the form of the renku are identical to the renga, the subject-matter, tone, and vocabulary are quite different. In other biblical texts like Deuteronomy , Deuteronomy -13, and Joshua 12:4 and Joshua , these beings are described as a race of terrible giants who once lived in parts of Palestine and the Transjordan region and were somehow related to the . Ultimately, the hokku section of the renku or haikai renga develop into the modern haiku after Matsuo Bashó took the poetic form and elevated it to a meaningful zen reaction to nature. In outdated scholarship from the 19th century, Hebrew linguists thought that these two meanings--ghost and giant--were distinct from each other. However, the discovery of Ugaritic texts in 1928 strongly suggests the two terms are at the very least closely related and probably synonymous. At Ugarit (modern Syria), the word signified members of the once-living aristocracy who attained some sort of semi-divine or superhuman powers after death in Ugaritic belief. In the underworld, these beings were thought to have the power to harm or aid the living. Accordingly, most Biblical scholars think the term of the underworld are explicitly described as those "who were leaders of the earth" and those "who were kings of the nations." See Ackerman's entry in Metzger and Coogan, page 647, for more information. REPRESENTATIVE CHARACTER: A flat character who embodies all of the other members of a group (such as teachers, students, cowboys, detectives, and so on). They need not be derogatory, but they are almost always simplified. RESTORATION: The restoration, also called the Restoration Period, is the time from 1660, when the Stuart monarch Charles II was re-established as ruler of England, to about 1700. Earlier, between 1649-1658, the Stuart line had lost its control over the nation after the Roundhead general Oliver Cromwell had created a Puritan dictatorship under "parliament's" control. During this earlier Puritan Interregnum, literature was heavily censored and drama was outlawed as immoral. After Cromwell's death in 1658 and Charles II's restoration to power, restoration drama (particularly comedies) and poetry flowered anew. The restoration is the early stage of the Enlightenment philosophy in England, signaling a movement rejecting dogmatic Puritanism and embracing logic and rational skepticism. RETARDED PRONUNCIATION: An old-fashioned way of pronunciation that lingers in one dialect even after a newer pronunciation has been accepted by other dialects in the same language. ION (From Latin re- tractare, "to pull back"): A writing in prose or verse in which the author "takes back" an earlier statement or piece of writing, often with an accompanying apology or explanation concerning her earlier errors. When this retraction appears in a conventionalized form of verse, it is often called a palinode. One of the most famous retractions is Chaucer's conclusion of the Canterbury Tales, in which the author (or perhaps only Chaucer's persona) renounces most of his earlier writings. of drama in which the plot revolves around the hero's attempt to avenge a previous wrong by killing the perpetrator of the deed, commonly with a great deal of bloodshed and incidental violence. A famous example is Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. Conventional features involve a reluctant protagonist who is called upon to avenge the murder of a loved one. Shakespeare's Hamlet has also been called a revenge play by some scholars. of poetry popular in the 1300s, in which the poetic speaker meets a conventional woman of great beauty--and often with supernatural power--who personifies the spring season, sexual fecundity, and verdant nature. In later RHYME (from Old French, rime meaning "series," in turn adopted from Latin rithmus and Greek rhythmos): Also spelled rime, rhyme is a matching similarity of sounds in two or more words, especially when their accented vowels and all succeeding consonants are identical. For instance, the word-pairs listed here are all rhymes: . Rhyming is frequently more than mere decoration in poetry. It helps to establish stanzaic form by marking the ends of lines, it is an aid in memorization when performing oral formulaic literature, and it contributes to the sense of unity in a poem. The best rhymes delight because of the human fascination with varying patterned repetition, but a successful and unexpected rhyme can also surprise the reader (which is especially important in comic verse). They may also serve as a rhythmical device for intensifying meaning. Several different types of rhyme and rhyme schemes exist: see also cliché rhymes, crossed rhyme, double rhyme, end rhyme, exact rhyme, eye rhyme, feminine ending, half rhyme, head rhyme, imperfect rhyme, inexact rhyme, interlaced rhyme, internal rhyme, leonine verse, masculine ending, perfect rhyme, rhyme royal, slant rhyme, tail-rhyme, and triple rhyme. (Often spelled as "rime royal"): A seven-line stanzaic form invented by Chaucer in the fourteenth century and later modified by Spenser and other Renaissance poets. In rhyme royal, the stanzas are writen in iambic pentameter in a fixed rhyme scheme (There was roaring in the wind all night; The rain came heavily and down in floods; But now the sun is rising calm and bright. The birds are singing in the distant woods; Over his own sweet voice the stockdove broods; The jay makes answer as the magpie chatters; And the air is filled with pleasant noise of waters. The traditional way to mark these patterns of rhyme is to assign a letter of the alphabet to each rhyming sound at the end of each line. For instance, here is the first stanza of James Shirley's poem "Of Death," from 1659. I have marked each line from the first stanza with an alphabetical letter at the end of each line to indicate rhyme: that every stanza follow the same rhyme scheme, though it is possible to have interlocking rhyme scheme such as terza rima. It is also common for poets to deliberately vary their rhyme scheme for artistic purposes--such as Philip Larkin's "Toads," in which the poetic speaker complains about his desire to stop working so hard, and his rhymes degenerate into half-rhymes or slant rhymes as an indication that he doesn't want to go to the effort of perfection. Among the most common rhyme schemes in English, we find heroic couplets RHYTHM (from Greek, "flowing"): The varying speed, loudness, pitch, elevation, intensity, and expressiveness of speech, especially poetry. In verse the rhythm is normally regular; in prose it may or may not be regular. See sprung rhythm for an exception to this general rule. RIDDLE (from Old English roedel, from roedan meaning "to give council" or "to read"): A universal form of literature in which a puzzling question or a conundrum is presented to the reader. The reader is often challenged to solve this enigma, which requires ingenuity in discovering the hidden meaning. A riddle may involve puns, symbolism, synecdoche, personification (especially prosopopoeia), or unusual imagery. The answer is the speaker's teeth; these thirty white horses circle the "red hill" of the tongue; they champ and stamp while the riddler speaks, but stand still at the end of his riddle. Another famous example is the riddle of the sphinx from Sophocles' Oedipus Trilogy. The sphinx asks Oedipus, "The earliest known English riddles are recorded in the Exeter Book, and they probably date back to the 8th century. Examples, however, can be found in Greek, Sanskrit, Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, and Chinese, and many other languages. Authors of Anglo-Latin riddles include Aldhelm of Sherborne, Archbishop Tatwine of Canterbury, and Abbot Eusebius of Wearmouth. A large Renaissance collection can also be found in Nicolas Reusner's Aenigmatographia (1602). RIDICULE: Words designed to arouse laughter and contempt for a person, idea, or institution. The rhetorical goal is to condemn or criticize the object by ridicule by making it seem suitable only for mockery (i.e., "ridiculous"). Satirists and some rhetoricians use ridicule as the basis of criticism or argument because they know jokes cannot be satisfactorily addressed in a logical argument. As Robert Harris suggests in his literary terms at virtualsalt.com, "who can refute a sneer? "): A narrative that represents actual historical characters and events in the form of fiction. Usually in this fictional setting, the author presents descriptions of real contemporary figures but uses fictitious names for them. However, the character's common traits and mannerisms would be so well-known that readers "in the know" would recognize them. Typically the "keys" would be published later if readers had trouble figuring out who was who. , the character Harry Bailly appears to have been an actual innkeeper who lived in Southwark. Many of the other pilgrims also appear to have real-life correspondences; J. Manly long ago summarized the evidence in ROMAN IMPERIAL PERIOD: After long centuries of representative democracy, within only a few generations, power in Roman government first collapsed into unofficial triumvirates and ultimately into dictatorships. Although Julius Caesar was a monarch in all but name, historians consider his nephew Octavian ( Caesar Augustus) the first official Emperor, and his rise to power in 27 CE marks the end of the Roman Republican Period and the beginning of the Roman Imperial Period. Writers living during this enormous power shift include Cicero, Julius Caesar, Lucretius, Catullus, Livy, and Tibullus. Imperial writers who wrote primarily after the Republic collapsed include Horace, Ovid, Seneca, Longinus, Pliny the Elder, Jospehus, Lucan, Martial, Plutarch, Statius, Tacitus, Juvenal, Pliny the Younger, Suetonius, Marcus Aurelius, and Apuleius. The Roman Empire itself collapsed in the fifth century CE. Vandals sacked the city of Rome in 455 CE, and in 476, another wave of barbarians dethroned the last Western Emperor, Romulus Augustulus. ROMAN REPUBLICAN PERIOD: The period of Roman history between 514 BCE up until 27 CE, when Rome was primarily and (at least officially) a Republic with elected senators. After Rome's traditional founding in 753 BCE, it fell under the power of Etruscan rulers who were viewed as tyrants. The Romans rebelled, and rose from a primitive monarchy to a complex system of indirect representation under Patrician families, where the richest individuals in select families were eligible for public office; they would represent either particular districts or a number of "clients" (the forerunners of modern special interest groups). By the first century BCE, Julius Caesar, Sulla, the Gracchi brothers, and other men increasingly upset this system--sometimes as part of oligarchic coalitions, sometimes as dictators (Latin Caesar Augustus) the first official Emperor, and his rise to power in 27 CE marks the end of the Republican Period and the beginning of the Imperial Period. Examples of early Roman and Republican literature include Plautus, Ennius, and Terence. Writers that bridge the gap between the two periods include Cicero, Julius Caesar, Lucretius, Catullus, Livy, and Tibullus. ROMAN STOICISM: The philosophy espoused by Marcus Aurelius's Meditations, "Roman Stoicism" actually originates with a band of earlier Greek thinkers, a specific school of philosophers that met at the stoa in Athens. Stoicism asserts that the natural world consists of suffering, and that the appropriate response of a human being is to face this suffering with dignity and a lack of tears while doing one's duty, acknowledging that life and pleasure are transitory. The philosophy is often contrasted with Epicurean philosophy, which asserted that wisdom lay in a "" existence in which humanity, faced with the transience of life, should strive to enjoy itself as much as possible by using reason and moderation to find pleasure. Both Epicureanism and Stoicism dealt with the same problem: the brevity of life. However, they reached opposite conclusions concerning the appropriate response to that problem. Roman characters like Aeneas in Virgil's A narrative that takes a small episode or group of episodes from some ancient or famous chronicle and then independently develops those events in much greater detail. Greek writers, for instance, often took small segments from Homeric epics and developed their own independent stories focusing on side-events or sub-plots that take place "in the background"--mostly concerning minor background characters with only occasional cameos by the major Homeric characters like Odysseus, Penelope, Agamemnon, or Ajax. Many medieval romances--such as Benoit de Sainte-Maure's (471). While not necessarily always writing medieval romances in poetic form, these later artists certainly have created works in the spirit of the historical romance. ROMANCE, MEDIEVAL (also called a chivalric romance): In medieval use, romance referred to episodic French and German poetry dealing with chivalry and the adventures of knights in warfare as they rescue fair maidens and confront supernatural challenges. The medieval metrical romances resembled the earlier chansons de gestes and epics. Their standard plot involves a single knight seeking to win a scornful lady's favor by undertaking a dangerous quest. However, unlike the Greek and Roman epics, medieval romances represent not a heroic age of tribal wars, but a courtly or chivalric period of history involving highly developed manners and civility, as M. Along the way, this knight encounters mysterious hermits, confronts evil blackguards and brigands, slays monsters and dragons, competes anonymously in tournaments, and suffers from wounds, starvation, deprivation, and exposure in the wilderness. He may incidentally save a few extra villages and pretty maidens along the way before finishing his primary task. (This is why scholars say romances are episodic--the plot can be stretched or contracted so the author can insert or remove any number of small, short adventures along the hero's way to the larger quest.) Medieval romances often focus on the supernatural. In the classical epic, supernatural events originate in the will and actions of the gods. However, in secular medieval romance, the supernatural originates in magic, spells, enchantments, and fairy trickery. Divine miracles are less frequent, but are always Christian in origin when they do occur, involving relics and angelic visitations. England produced its own romances in the fourteenth century, including the Lay of Havelok the Dane and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. A secondary concern is courtly love and the proprieties of aristocratic courtship--especially the consequences of arranged marriage and adultery. In 1485, Caxton printed the lengthy romance Le Morte D'Arthur, a prose work that constituted a grand synthesis of Arthurian legends. (1) "The Matter of Rome": stories based on the history and legends of Greco-Roman origin such as the Trojan war, Thebes, mythological figures, and the exploits of Alexander the Great. Gradually, the poetic ROMANCE, MODERN: In contrast with medieval and Renaissance romance, the meaning of a modern romance has become more restricted in the 20th century. The medieval poet usually creates an anachronistic work by turning these figures into knights as he knew them.(2) "The Matter of Britain": stories based on Celtic subject-matter, especially Camelot, King Arthur, and his knights of the round table, including material derived from the Celto-French Bretons and Breton A large number of such romances survive due to their enormous popularity, including the works of Chrétien de Troyes (c. Modern nonscholarly speakers refer to romances when they mean formulaic stories recounting the growth of a passionate sexual relationship. The conventional plotline involves a third-person narrative or a first-person narrative told from the viewpoint of a young woman between the ages of eighteen and her late twenties. She encounters a potential paramour in the form of a slightly older man. The two are prevented from forming a relationship due to social, psychological, economic, or interpersonal constraints. The primary plot involves the two overcoming these constraints through melodramatic efforts. The story conventionally ends happily with the two characters professing their love for each other and building a life together. See melodrama, romance, medieval, and romance, renaissance. of metrical romances gradually were replaced by prose works in the 1500s. At that point, the meaning of a "romance" expanded to include any lengthy French or Spanish story written in the 1500s and 1600s involving episodic encounters with supernatural or exciting events. The connotations were of wild adventures rather than romantic longing as in the modern meaning of romance. ROMANTIC COMEDY: Sympathetic comedy that presents the adventures of young lovers trying to overcome social, psychological, or interpersonal constraints to achieve a successful union. Commedia dell'arte is a general type of drama that falls into this category. Several Shakespearean plays such as ROMANTICISM: The term refers to the artistic philosophy prevalent during the first third of the nineteenth century (about 1800-1830). Romanticism rejected the earlier philosophy of the Enlightenment, which stressed that logic and reason were the best response humans had in the face of cruelty, stupidity, superstition, and barbarism. Instead, the Romantics asserted that reliance upon emotion and natural passions provided a valid and powerful means of knowing and a reliable guide to ethics and living. The Romantic movement typically asserts the unique nature of the individual, the privileged status of imagination and fancy, the value of spontaneity over "artifice" and "convention," the human need for emotional outlets, the rejection of civilized corruption, and a desire to return to natural primitivism and escape the spiritual destruction of urban life. Their writings often are set in rural, pastoral or Gothic settings and they show an obsessive concern with "innocent" characters--children, young lovers, and animals. The major Romantic poets included William Blake, William Wordsworth, John Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and Lord Gordon Byron. You can click here to download RONDEAU (French, "little circle"): A short poem consisting of ten, thirteen, or fifteen lines using only two rhymes which concludes each section with an abbreviated line that serves as a refrain. would, a little span, Some air of Arcady could fan This age of ours, too seldom stirred With pipe and flute! We can see an example of the With pipe and flute the rustic Pan Of old made music sweet for man; And wonder hushed the warbling bird, And closer drew the calm-eyed herd, The rolling river slowlier ran. But now for gold we plot and plan; And from Beersheba unto Dan Apollo's self might pass unheard, Or find the night-jar's note preferred-- Not so it fared when time began With pipe and flute! It usually totals fourteen lines containing only two rhyming sounds. Words in different languages that ultimately descend from the same root--cousins and siblings on the linguistic family tree--are said to be cognates to each other if they are similar in sound and meaning. The rondeau is an uncommon genre in English because of the need to repeat two rhymes so many times. The first two lines are repeated at the middle of the poem and again at the end. Etymology is the study of how words can be traced back to an older root. Languages with matching masculine and feminine endings for nouns--such as French, Spanish, and Italian--serve as a much better medium for the genre. The rondel differs from the rondeau only in the number of lines and the use of complete (not partial) lines for the refrain. ROUND CHARACTER: A round character is depicted with such psychological depth and detail that he or she seems like a "real" person. The round character contrasts with the flat character, a character who serves a specific or minor literary function in a text, and who may be a stock character or simplified stereotype. If the round character changes or evolves over the course of a narrative or appears to have the capacity for such change, the character is also dynamic. Typically, a short story has one round character and several flat ones. However, in longer novels and plays, there may be many round characters. The terms : A poem in the pattern of the rondeau, but only having eleven lines. can be used in reference to the musical background (setting) for a poem in a fixed form and also for a round dance that is to be performed while the music plays and the poem is recited or sung. rondeau, rondel, roundel, villanelle.: Not to be confused with round character, (see above), a Roundhead is a member or supporter of the parliamentarian or Puritan party during the English Civil War, one of those who opposed King Charles I (c. The designation comes from the way the Puritans tended to cut their hair ascetically short, which contrasted with the long luxurious locks of the Cavaliers. Like the rondeau and the rondel, the roundel uses only two rhymes and a twice-repeated refrain. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. RUBAIYAT: An Arabic term meaning a quatrain, or four-line stanza. The term is nearly always included in the title of any Arabic poem that is built upon such quatrains. The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (Edward Fitzgerald's loose translation of the eleventh-century Persian poet and astronomer Omar Khayyam's work) is probably the best known example for English-speakers. Two of its most famous quatrains appear below: RUNE: In a writing system designed to be scratched or carved on a flat surface such as wood or stone, the individual letters are known as runes. Typically, these markings have few or no curves, circles, or dots, but instead, each mark consists of a number of straight cuts or strokes. (The strokes may, however, involve complex combinations of vertical, horizontal, and diagonal lines.) Runic writing systems tend to appear in areas where paper or parchment are scarce or unknown or where ink is commonly unavailable. Typical runic marks might indicate ownership of a house or object, they may be magic spells designed to be cut or scratched on a shield as a pagan protective charm, and they may mark boundary stones. It is accordinly rare to find lengthy literary writings done in runes--which naturally tend to force brevity upon the communicant given the effort involved in cutting or carving them. Runes were common among ancient and medieval inhabitants of Scandinavia, the continental Germanic tribes, and among the Anglo-Saxons who invaded Britain. By the High Middle Ages, parchment, pen, and ink had largely displaced the runic writing systems. I consulted the following works while preparing this list. I have tried to give credit to specific sources when feasible, but in many cases multiple reference works use the same examples or provide the same dates for common information. Write my essay request? Order custom essay from professional essay writing service. Hire an expert essay writer from US or UK and get your papers done.
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Triad Fitness – Azusa, CA I’ve been sitting for a couple of hours typing up some expository writing samples from my kids since so many people are still needing lots of examples. It’s great to use REAL student writing in class to show what is working and what isn’t. Some of you have asked when we started expository writing–well, we began way back in October. We flip back and forth throughout the year between the two types of writing. We spend an average of 4-5 weeks on narrative, and then move on to expository, and so on. Now that we are getting closer and closer to test time, we are only spending a couple of weeks on each. I’ll be posting soon about an activity called “Genre Switch” where kids write for just a small amount of time in both genres. For now, I’m posting several expository writing pieces that my students have written to various topics. Some of these were written as their choice of 3 writing prompts, and others were written on the students’ last writing benchmark. The benchmark prompt was the prompt that our students were given last year on their STAAR test (our official standardized test–for those of you who don’t live in Texas). I had already given them that topic as a choice, so some of them already had prior experience writing to that topic. The funny thing about it is: most of them wrote something completely different, even though I’ve told them that they don’t have to…and frankly, if they have already had positive feedback, they should write the same thing, but even better the next time around! So, without further ado…here they are: Christmas Eve by Daniel Dance Season by Aaliyah Fantastic Friends by Blake Folklorico by Daniella Football by Chris R Friends by Abram Friends by Gasseli Go Meet Your Teacher Night by Avery HALLOWEEN by Gasseli Summer by Annaleah Summer by Kylie Winter by Sherlyn These samples are simply in alphabetical order. You can pick and choose which ones you want to use, or you can print them all and use all of them with your kiddos and talk about what was great and what needs improvement. You could even use them with some revising and editing! Some of you have waited patiently for me to finally get these posted…for that…THANK YOU! It takes some time to get these gathered up, pick out which ones should be posted, type them, and get them up on the blog. Please feel free to share these with other people that you know. They will always be right here on my blog, so you can always save paper and just project them from here. If there was something that you really liked, please leave a comment letting us know! I show my blog to my students so that they can see who is showcased and how many people around the world are looking at their AH-mazing work! Other posts you might like: Expository Writing at its Finest; Expository Writing Samples; The First Installment of Writing Samples; Narrative vs. Submit this form and visit us at Triad Fitness to pick up your FREE gym pass!
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