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What is Mac's World Live? - Mac McKoy Before the National Institutes of Health began their research in the 1980's, the only definition of dyslexia was an exclusionary one. If a child's difficulty with reading could not be explained by low intelligence, poor eyesight, poor hearing, inadequate educational opportunities, or any other problem, then the child must be dyslexic. That definition was not satisfactory to parents, teachers, or researchers. So here are three different definitions in use today. Dyslexia is a neurologically-based, often familial, disorder which interferes with the acquisition and processing of language. Varying in degrees of severity, it is manifested by difficulties in receptive and expressive language, including phonological processing, in reading, writing, spelling, handwriting, and sometimes in arithmetic. Dyslexia is not the result of lack of motivation, sensory impairment, inadequate instructional or environmental opportunities, or other limiting conditions, but may occur together with these conditions. Although dyslexia is lifelong, individuals with dyslexia frequently respond successfully to timely and appropriate intervention. Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition, and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. “Learning Disability” is not a specific term; it is a category containing many specific disabilities, all of which cause learning to be difficult. The following definition of “learning disability” is used for legislative, financial, and educational purposes only. It is not a definition of dyslexia, which is one specific learning disability. The term “learning disability” means a disorder in one or more of the basic processes involved in understanding spoken or written language. It may show up as a problem in listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, or spelling or in a person's ability to do math, despite at least average intelligence. The term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or physical handicaps, or mental retardation, or emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. No two people with dyslexia are exactly alike because dyslexia ranges from mild to moderate to severe to profound. Therefore, someone with dyslexia may not have every single symptom listed below. Professional testers look for a “constellation” or cluster of symptoms in the following areas. If someone struggles with spelling, is a slow reader who has a difficult time sounding out unknown words, and has difficulty getting their great thoughts down on paper in acceptable form, and that person has 3 or more of these classic warning signs, it is worth getting that person tested for dyslexia. These problems are unexpected when compared to the person's proven abilities in other areas. One is also available on the warning signs of ADD/ADHD. Just click here, then type in your home or work mailing address. If three or more of these warning signs exist, especially if there is dyslexia or ADD/ADHD in the family tree, the child should be tested for dyslexia when the child becomes five years old. Also, phonemic awareness games and other reading readiness activities should be done daily during the preschool years. Learning any task that has a series of steps which must be completed in a specific order can be difficult. That's because you must memorize the sequence of steps, and often, there is no logic in the sequence. These tasks are usually challenging for people with dyslexia: Memorizing non-meaningful facts (facts that are not personally interesting and personally relevant) is extremely difficult for most dyslexic children and adults. In school, this leads to difficulty learning: People with dyslexia have an extremely difficult time organizing their belongings. They tend to pile things rather than to organize them and put them away. It is almost as though if they can't see the item (if it is behind a door or in a drawer), they will forget where it is. So they have extremely messy bedrooms, lockers, desks, backpacks, purses, offices, and garages. Their three-dimensional visualization skills help them “see” math concepts more quickly and clearly than non-dyslexic people. Unfortunately, difficulties in directionality, rote memorization, reading, and sequencing can make the following math tasks so difficult that their math gifts are never discovered. A small percentage (3% to 8%) of people with dyslexia also have light sensitivity (sometimes called scotopic sensitivity). These people have a hard time seeing small black print on white paper. The print seems to shimmer or move; some see the rivers of white more strongly than the black words. These people tend to dislike fluorescent lighting, and often “shade” the page with their hand or head when they read. Colored plastic overlays and/or colored lenses can eliminate the harsh black print against white paper contrast, and may make letters stand still for the first time in someone's life. However, the plastic overlays or colored lenses will not “cure” dyslexia, nor will they teach a dyslexic person how to read. NIH research has repeatedly demonstrated that lack of phonemic awareness is the root cause of reading failure. Phonemes are the smallest unit of spoken language, not written language. Children who lack phonemic awareness are unable to distinguish or manipulate sounds within spoken words or syllables. They would be unable to do the following tasks: If a child lacks phonemic awareness, they will have difficulty learning the relationship between letters and the sounds they represent in words, as well as applying those letter/sound correspondences to help them “sound out” unknown words. So children who perform poorly on phonemic awareness tasks via oral language in kindergarten are very likely to experience difficulties acquiring the early word reading skills that provide the foundation for growth of reading ability throughout elementary school. Phonemic awareness skills can and must be directly and explicitly taught to children who lack this awareness. Otherwise, the phonics instruction will not make sense to the dyslexic child. Phonological processing refers to understanding of sounds used in our language, ranging from big chunks of sound (words), to smaller chunks (syllables) and eventually to phonemic awareness (every sound within a syllable). Both phonemic awareness and phonological processing are auditory processing skills. Therefore, they can (and should) be taught before letters are introduced. The goal of teaching phonics is to link the individual sounds to letters, and to make that process fluent and automatic, for both reading and spelling. In other words, phonics teaches students symbol-to-sound and sound-to-symbol. But for phonics to work, a student must first have solid phonological processing and phonemic awareness. To see how these different items are taught, take a look at our How to Get Help page. Researchers have determined that a gene on the short arm of chromosome #6 is responsible for dyslexia. That gene is dominant, making dyslexia highly heritable. Dyslexia results from a neurological difference; that is, a brain difference. People with dyslexia have a larger right hemisphere in their brains than those of normal readers. That may be one reason people with dyslexia often have significant strengths in areas controlled by the right side of the brain, such as: In addition to unique brain architecture, people with dyslexia have unusual “wiring.” Neurons are found in unusual places in the brain, and they are not as neatly ordered as in non-dyslexic brains. In addition to unique brain architecture and unusual wiring, f/MRI studies have shown that people with dyslexia do not use the same part of their brain when reading as other people. Regular readers consistently use the same part of their brain when they read. People with dyslexia do not use that part of their brain, and there appears to be no consistent part used among dyslexic readers. It is therefore assumed that people with dyslexia are not using the most efficient part of their brain when they read. A different part of their brain has taken over that function. Excerpt from “Dissecting Dyslexia” Reading Children who cannot read fluently or spell accurately are often thought to lack intelligence or motivation. But in most cases, they are neither stupid nor lazy. They have dyslexia, which makes it difficult for them to understand written language despite having a normal—or higher than normal—IQ. Recent studies suggest that their reading difficulties are caused by identifiable genetic variations that create “faulty wiring” in certain areas of the brain. Luckily, most of our brain development occurs after we are born, when we interact with our environment. This means that the right teaching techniques can actually re-train the brain, especially when used early. , October 2006 This scholarly research article expands on the following: All four genes thus far linked to dyslexia impact brain development. Comparable abnormalities induced in young rodent brains cause auditory deficits, underscoring the potential relevance of these brain changes to dyslexia. Our perspective on dyslexia is that some of the brain changes cause phonological processing abnormalities as well as auditory processing abnormalities. Thus, we propose a pathway between a genetic effect, developmental brain changes, and perceptual deficits associated with dyslexia. , November 2, 2005 One year after scientists discovered a gene whose flaw contributes to dyslexia, two more such genes have been identified. The findings, described yesterday in Salt Lake City at a meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics, support the idea that many people deemed simply lazy or stupid, because of their severe reading problems, may instead have a genetic disorder that interfered with the wiring of their brains before birth. , December 2008 Dyslexia (reading disability) is a complex trait determined in large part by genetic factors. Association studies and translocation breakpoint analyses have proposed several genes as susceptibility candidates at some of the quantitative trait loci linked to dyslexia: DYX1C1 on chromosome 15, KIAA0319 and DCDC2 on chromosome 6, ROBO1 on chromosome 3, and MRPL19 and C20RF3 on chromosome 2. The results of this study both support the role of KIAA0319 in the development of dyslexia and and suggest that this gene influence reading ability in the general population. Moreover, the data implicate the three-SNP haplotype and its tagging SNP rs2143340 as genetic risk factors for poor reading performance. This research article is extremely technical but is a “must read” for those who want to understand the latest in genetic research. Scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered that a gene linked to dyslexia has a surprising biological function: it controls cilia, the antenna-like projections that cells use to communicate. Dyslelxia is largely hereditary and linked to a number of genes. One of these genes, DCDC2, is involved in regulating the signaling of cilia in brain neurons. , April 18, 2008 A team of Finnish and American geneticists have found that, for some people at least, music is in their genes. In what the researchers called the first study of its kind, they found specific regions of chromosomes that were connected to musical ability. The chromosomal regions that were found to be connected to music are known to be involved in the migration of neurons during development. And the study also found that the musical DNA overlapped with a region associated with dyslexia. Dyslexia exists in every country, even countries in which the written language is not phonetic. Genetic studies in western populations have suggested that DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for dyslexia. This study of 393 Chinese children determined that the very same gene is responsible for dyslexia in Chinese children. And those children have difficulty with rapid naming, phonological memory, and orthographic skills – just as dyslexic children in western countries do. In the early 1980's, the United States Congress mandated the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to research learning disabilities and answer 7 specific questions. After conducting longitudinal research plus numerous studies on genetics, interventions, and brain function, we now have a great deal of independent, scientific, replicated, published research on dyslexia. This section shares the research results released by the National Institutes of Health from 1994 to the present, as well as from dyslexia researchers in several others countries. The National Institutes of Health conducted a longitudinal study by tracking 5,000 children at random from all over the country starting when they were 4 years old until they graduated from high school. The researchers had no idea which children would develop reading difficulties and which ones would not. There were many theories at that time as to what caused reading difficulties, and which tests best predicted reading failure. The researchers tested these children 3 times a year for 14 years using a variety of tests that would either support or disprove the competing theories. But the researchers did NOT provide any type of training or intervention. From that research, they were able to determine which tests are most predictive of reading failure, at what age we can test children, and whether children outgrow their reading difficulties. This study also spawned numerous other NIH research projects. The results of these studies were released in 1994. A growing body of evidence supports her prediction and suggests that many of these children do not “outgrow” these problems, and that “simple” delays in communication may, in fact, be stable predictors of later learning disabilities. One set of researchers followed a group of children from ages 2 to 6. The children were identified at age 2 as “late talkers”. Although the majority outgrew their oral language delay by age 4, they demonstrated academic delays at ages 5 and 6. Another set of researchers found that the oral language disorders decreased over time, giving the impression of “recovery” by age 5. However, the majority of those children experienced reading disabilities by grade 2. , August 22, 2008 Atypical characteristics of children's linguistic development are early signs of the risk of dyslexia, and new research points to preventive exercises as an effective means to tackle the challenges children face when learning to read. The results achieved at the Centre of Excellence in Learning and Motivation Research were presented at Finland's Academy of Science breakfast on 21 August. Headed by Professor Lyytinen at the University of Jyvaskyla, the study compared 107 children with a dyslexic parent to a control group of children without a hereditary predisposition to dyslexia. The researchers followed the children from birth through school age. “Half of the children whose parents had difficulties in reading and writing found learning to read more challenging than children in the control group. The atypical characteristics of these children's linguistic development indicated the risk at a very early age,” says Lyytinen. According to Lyytinen, the predictors of reading and writing difficulties are evident primarily in two contexts: a delayed ability to perceive and mentally process the subtleties of a person's voice, and a sluggishness in naming familiar, visually presented objects. Significant difficulty with spelling, when writing sentences and stories, is the most obvious warning sign of dyslexia. That's why spelling is mentioned in the research-based definition of dyslexia used by the International Dyslexia Association and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), which is: Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. Poor spelling when writing essays and stories is a huge red flag of dyslexia. As part of Reading Rocket’s Meet The Experts series, Dr. Louisa Moats shares how reading problems show up first in spelling. Times uk, October 25, 2008 In the past, poor spelling was attributed to all manner of things, from bad schooling to a lack of moral fiber. A difficulty with spelling could be rooted in your genes and in the way your brain is wired. She then explains the importance of reading and spelling nonsense words. The International Dyslexia Association has recently released a 4-page fact sheet on Spelling (“Just the Facts…Spelling”), which states that people with dyslexia have “conspicuous problems” with spelling and writing. These findings stem from research into the language disorder dyslexia, but they are proving important for the wider population. The fact sheet quotes the research and explains how spelling needs to be taught. Produced by the International Dyslexia Association, posted on their website in 2008 Tony Monaco, a scientist at the Wellcome Centre Trust for Human Genetics, Oxford University, believes that our ability to spell lies partly in our DNA. In his study, his lab tracked the development of 6,000 children born in the early Nineties. Previous studies highlighted a particular gene that might affect reading ability, KIAA0319. We all carry it, but he found that 15 percent of the population have a slightly different version than normal. According to Professor Monaco, the normal version of the gene helps to guide brain cells into the cortex when a child is developing in the womb. When the gene is different, however, it is unable to properly fulfill its function; brain cells get lost on the journey and end up in the wrong place. “This may disrupt the processing of information,” he says. Excerpt from: “Brain Images Show Individual Dyslexic Children Respond To Spelling Treatment” Medical News Today.com, February 15, 2006 Brain images of children with dyslexia taken before they received spelling instruction show that they have different patterns of neural activity than do good spellers when doing language tasks related to spelling. But after specialized treatment emphasizing the letters in words, they showed similar patterns of brain activity. These findings are important because they show the human brain can change and normalize in response to spelling instruction, even in dyslexia, the most common learning disability. This 30-minute video, hosted by Henry Winkler, who has his own struggles with reading, explores how brain scientists are working to solve the puzzle of why some children struggle to read and others don't. Startling new research shows the answer may lie in how a child's brain is wired from birth. This program is the newest episode on , February 11, 2007 Dr. Just, a brain researcher at Carnegie Mellon University, and his colleagues, as well as brain imaging carried out at Georgetown University, Yale University and other centers, has proven that seeing letters in reverse or out of order is NOT the cause of dyslexia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI), which measures blood flow to different parts of the brain, researchers now know that dyslexia involves a weakness in the part of the brain that decodes the sounds of written language. That region sits above the left ear, at the junction of the brain's temporal and parietal lobes. Researchers have also shown that the right kind of intensive instruction can rewire the brain and help overcome reading deficits. When Carnegie Mellon scanned the brains of youngsters who received a year of concentrated reading instruction, they showed 40 percent more activity in the word decoding areas of their brains, Dr. A similar study at Yale showed that a year after receiving such instruction, boys and girls continued to show increased activity in both the word-decoding and word-forming areas of their brains. A study at Georgetown University showed that intensive intervention also helps adults with dyslexia. , December 4, 2007 Dyslexia marked by poor reading fluency—slow and choppy reading—may be caused by disorganized, meandering tracts of nerve fibers in the brain, according to researchers at Children's Hospital Boston and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. The study, using the latest imaging methods, gives researchers a glimpse of what may go wrong in the structure of some dyslexic readers' brains, making it difficult to integrate the information needed for rapid, “automatic” reading. , September 5, 2007 Using new software developed to investigate how the brains of dyslexic children are organized, University of Washington researchers have found that key areas for language and working memory involved in reading are connected differently in dyslexics than in children who are good readers and spellers. However, once the children with dyslexia received an intense and specialized instructional program, their patterns of functional brain connectivity normalized and were similar to those of good readers when deciding if sounds went with groups of letters in words. Excerpt from: “Dyslexic children use nearly five times the brain area” University of Washington press release UWNews.org, October 4, 1999 Dyslexic children use nearly five times the brain area as normal children while performing a simple language task, according to a new study by an interdisciplinary team of University of Washington researchers. The study shows, for the first time, that there are chemical differences in the brain function of dyslexic and non-dyslexic children. The research, published in the current issue of the , also provides new evidence that dyslexia is a brain-based disorder. This study, part of a wider UW effort to understand the basis of dyslexia and develop treatments for it, was funded by the National Institutes of Children Health and Human Development, a branch of the National Institutes of Health. Regardless of high or low overall scores on an IQ test, children with dyslexia show similar patterns of brain activity, according to researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health. The results call into question the discrepancy model – the current practice of classifying a child as dyslexic on the basis of a lag between reading ability and IQ score. , August 7, 2008 A new Carnegie Mellon University brain imaging study of dyslexic students shows that the brain can permanently rewire itself and overcome reading deficits, if students are given 100 hours of intensive remedial instruction. The study, published in the August issue of the journal , shows that the remedial instruction resulted in an increase in brain activity in several cortical regions associated with reading, and that gains became further solidified during the year following instruction. “This study demonstrates how remedial instruction can use the plasticity of the human brain to gain an educational improvement,” said neuroscientist Marcel Just, director of Carnegie Mellon's Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging (CCBI) and senior author of the study. “Focused instruction can help underperforming brain areas to increase their brain proficiency.” To read the entire article describing this study, click here. People with dyslexia vary in their ability to improve reading skills, but the brain basis for improvement remains largely unknown. These researchers performed a prospective, longitudinal study over 2.5 years on 25 children with and without dyslexia to discover whether initial behavioral or brain measures, including f MRI and DTI, could predict future long-term reading gains in dyslexia. This study showed that greater right prefrontal activation during a reading task that demanded phonological awareness, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus white-matter organization, significantly predicted future reading gains. The average dyslexic child is not diagnosed – and so does not begin to receive intensive reading help – until she is in 2nd or 3rd grade. But intervening in kindergarten, or earlier, is known to be effective. Studies in preschoolers have shown that glitches in certain prereading skills, such as rhyming or rapid object naming, are associated with later dyslexia. Nadine Gaab, a researcher at Children’s Hospital in Boston, hopes to pin down markers in younger children, perhaps even infants. A book containing all of the latest research on dyslexia written in layman's terms. Sally Shaywitz is one of the NIH's leading dyslexia researchers, is codirector of the Yale Center for the Study of Learning and Attention, and is well known for her f MRI brain scan studies as well as the Connecticut Longitudinal Study. Sally Shaywitz, author of , is an outstanding educator and speaker. Reid Lyon is the former branch chief of NICHD, the arm of the National Institutes of Health that has been conducting research into dyslexia for the past 25 years. Using brain scans, Gaab and her colleagues have found less gray matter in brain areas involved in mapping sounds in preschoolers, and neural deficits that prevent them from properly processing fast-changing sounds. In this superb book, you'll learn how: Susan Barton highly recommends this book to any parent, teacher, or other professional who interacts with children or adults with dyslexia. In this one-hour lecture, given at Harvard University on September 30, 2006, she explains why dyslexia and creativity are two sides of the same coin—and shares many case studies that prove it. Susan Barton was recently given a direct link to his research, as well as a link to a downloadable Power Point presentation Dr. For those who struggle with dyslexia, a reading problem that confounds 1 in every 5 Americans, the written word is a misfire in the mind. Indeed, a lifetime of reading problems can be traced to a distinctive flaw in the brain that makes the mind strain and stumble over written words. That telltale signature of dyslexia now can be detected reliably in brain scans of children as young as 7, researchers say. The scans showed that people with dyslexia have a much lower level of activity in areas at the back of the brain thought to be responsible for quickly matching words, sounds and meaning, compared to normal readers. “We know now that this disruption is not due simply to a lifetime of poor reading because we see it in children as young as age 7,” said Dr. Sally Shaywitz, director of the Yale University Center for Learning and Attention and co-author of the study published this month in the research journal . To read the National Institutes of Health's press release on this study, see NIH News Release: Children's Reading Disability Attributed to Brain Impairment. For additional background on brain research and reading, see the Q&A with Dr. Excerpt from: “55% of students who fail SATs have dyslexia or a learning disability” University of Hull Xtraordinary People publication, March 17, 2008 A new report released by Xtraordinary People on March 17, 2008, as part of their “No To Failure” project, has revealed the full extent of the hidden problem of dyslexia in classrooms around the country. In the screening phase of the study, a total of 1,341 pupils were screened in Year 3 and Year 7 in 20 schools across three different local authorities in England. This sample is reasonably representative of schools nationally, although slightly biased towards the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum. Overall, 55% of all pupils who failed to reach expected targets on the national Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) were found to be “at risk” for dyslexia, indicating that unidentified dyslexia is a major cause of educational failure that could be remedied, but which at present, is largely ignored. Xtraordinary People, a dyslexia charity supported by Sir Richard Branson, who is also dyslexic, is calling for the government to implement mandatory dyslexia awareness training for all teachers and to commit to providing dyslexia specialist training for one teacher in every school. Their No To Failure project is an empirical study to: “The link between dyslexia and academic failure has been made shockingly clear in our report. This level of failure is unacceptable and unnecessary because with a correct ‘diagnosis’ and support from trained specialists, dyslexic children can flourish. There is simply no need for these children to be slipping through the academic net,” said Kate Griggs, founder of Xtraordinary People. Because people with dyslexia are known to struggle with phonemes when reading, a US-based team of scientists at MIT wondered if they would also struggle hearing them in people’s voices. To investigate, the team grouped 30 people of similar age, education and IQ into two camps: those with and without dyslexia. The subjects went through a training period to learn to associate 10 different voices – half speaking English and half speaking Chinese – with 10 computer-generated avatars. Non-dyslexics outperformed people with dyslexia by 40% when listening to English. However, that advantage disappeared when the groups were listening to Chinese – because neither group had learned to hear Chinese phonemes. “Our results are the first to explicitly link impairment in reading ability to impairment in ecologically processing spoken language,” said researcher Tyler Perrachione. People with dyslexia often struggle with the ability to accurately decode and identify what they read. Although disrupted processing of speech sounds has been implicated in the underlying pathology of dyslexia, the basis for that disruption and how it interferes with reading has not been fully explained. Now, new research published by Cell Press in the December 22, 2011 issue of the journal finds that a specific abnormality in the processing of auditory signals accounts for the main symptoms of dyslexia. This new study shows that their left auditory cortex may be less responsive to modulations at specific frequencies that are optimal for analysis of speech sounds. New imaging research shows that the reduced brain activity associated with the onset of dyslexia develops before, not after, a child starts to read. Key parts of the brain’s rear left hemisphere critical to language processing do not undergo activity changes, the study suggests, which may be part of the cause. Guinevere Eden, director of the Center for the Study of Learning, a professor of pediatrics at Georgetown University, and past president of the International Dyslexia Association shared, “This means they have found a physiological signature for a child who is likely at risk for dyslexia, which will be of great help in doing what everyone really wants to do: identify and treat children with dyslexia as early as possible.” To read the entire article, click here. Although their unique brain architecture and “unusual wiring” make reading, writing, and spelling difficult, most people with dyslexia have gifts in areas controlled by the right hemisphere of the brain. The right side controls: A set of posters of famous people with dyslexia and/or ADD that teachers or parents can display on their walls. To view all of their posters about learning differences, click here. To view their poster of famous people with dyslexia, click here. No matter the scolding, the guilt, the prodding or the pushing, my mind does not enjoy reading. While others sprinted ahead, I lumbered forward, pausing between words and sentences as if they were high hurdles or steeple chase walls. Excerpt from: “I'm Not Ashamed of My Dyslexia” Doug Bursch The Moderate Voice.com, October 20, 2010 I don't enjoy reading. As I grew older, I began to tell people the story about how I used to be dyslexic, about how I grew out of my disability. I host a daily radio show and a few months back decided it would be nice to do a show on dyslexia, and share how I learned to read and “grow out” of dyslexia. In the middle of our interview, I proudly blurted out, “I'm dyslexic! He shares: I was 35 years old when I found out that I was dyslexic. Dyslexics lose their desire to read, or they never gain a desire, or they can't seem to maintain a desire to continue along the written page. It sounded right to me and it made me feel special, even though it was not true. I found a professor from Yale (Sally Shaywitz) who began to describe my life. ” I said those words as if I'd won a prize or at least found a place to stand without shame. My daughter, who is now 30, was being thrown out of the sixth grade at her private school. I met with the head of the school and he said: “She may not be up to what we're trying to accomplish." What he was really saying was that she didn't have the intelligence. I got really mad because I knew from talking to my daughter that she was smart, just as my father had known that I was smart when I was failing in school. By the time I got to college I had come to realize that I couldn't spell, no matter how hard I tried. We had her tested and all of the things that were going on with her were the same things that had been going on with me. So at the University of Oregon, I would sign up for extra courses. Then I would go around the first day of class and ask each professor: “What's your policy on misspelling? Let your English department worry about spelling,” I'd keep the course. If he said, “Three misspellings is a flunk,” I'd drop it. Steven Cannell is an avid spokesperson on dyslexia. In an inspiring video series, he explains what dyslexia is, recalls his experiences, and provides advice. Known for making America laugh on the Carol Burnett Show, Mc Hale's Navy, Dorf videos and more, Tim Conway traces his handiness with a hammer to a high school shop class, one of his favorite subjects because childhood dyslexia made it difficult for him to read. “People thought that I was kidding when I would read out loud in school, so they started laughing,” he recalls. Excerpt from: “The doctor is in—again: Patrick Dempsey of ‘Grey's Anatomy’ is being hailed as this TV season's comeback kid.” Michele Hatty “Dyslexia really hurt me during auditions. “For instance, the book Anderson Cooper is an Emmy Award winning American journalist, author, and the primary anchor of the CNN news show Anderson Cooper 360. There was a 10-year period where I had to memorize pages of dialogue and invest so much of my time and energy into every audition, going in knowing I wouldn't get it anyway,” Patrick Dempsey says with a trace of bitterness. Grey's creator, Shonda Rhimes, admits Dempsey's dyslexia threw her at first, particularly at the first few “table readings”—meetings when the cast gathers to read fresh scripts aloud. “I did not know about Patrick's dyslexia in the beginning," she says. “I actually thought that he didn't like the scripts from the way he approached the readings.” “When I found out, I completely understood his hesitation. Now that we all know, if he is struggling with a word, the other actors are quick to step up and help him out. Everyone is very respectful.” To read the entire interview, click here. From the Read Me website: Sara Entine, a talented independent filmmaker, has created a film that tells the story of her family, whose complicated relationships stem from misunderstandings due to unidentified dyslexia and AD/HD. It is the story of a mother, daughter, and granddaughter who long to feel seen, accepted, and loved for who they are. To watch a 10-minute trailer, free, on her website, click here. Excerpt from: “Dyslexic youth discovers talent as an actor” Jamie Portman When Luke Ford was diagnosed with dyslexia as a child in Australia, the last thing he expected was that it would launch him into an acting career and pave the way for a major role in a big Hollywood film like . He was told one of the best ways of dealing with dyslexia was to make his brain work in new areas. “So I went and tried to be a musician, but that didn't work,” he grins. Then he tried to be a painter and discovered he was pretty untalented in that area as well. “So then I thought, ‘All right, I'll do this drama class.’ They told me I was really good, and I got an A—but the next thing they did was to drop drama from my high school.” Ford's response to that was to quit school and try to become a professional actor. Excerpt from: “Tony Bennett says he's ‘never felt better’” Cassandra Szklarski jam.Bennett says coping with dyslexia, a learning disability that causes difficulty in reading and writing, has been an ongoing struggle throughout his impressive career. “I've always had a bit of dyslexia, so it's very hard for me to read proficiently,” says Bennett, known for a rich, natural vocal style that appears effortless. My eyes bounce, so it's difficult for me to follow musically that way. I have to do it instinctively and intuitively.” To read his story, click here. Excerpt from: “John Lennon: Imagine Dyslexia” Rafael Scarnati Learning Foundations.wordpress.com, December 13, 2010 Growing up, few people expected John Lennon to be any more successful than a pot scrubber or factory worker in Liverpool. Like many dyslexic children going to school, he was extremely bright yet grossly underestimated. He couldn't spell, even though he loved to read and write stories. He couldn't memorize the lyrics to other people's songs, but wrote amazingly creative lyrics himself. Except for his art classes, he got terrible grades. He was deemed a troublemaker, yet even when he dropped out of high school, his strong people skills and creativity moved his headmaster to make a special recommendation to get him into college. His is also a story that reveals both the challenges, and the gifts, of dyslexia. Excerpt from: “Seamless move to jazz music” Michelle Mc Donagh Irish Tom Mulcahy finds it difficult to put into words the impact that being diagnosed with dyslexia had on him after a lifetime of failing exams and feeling inadequate. He was an artist, a storyteller and a poet from a very early age. It was not until ten years ago, while he was in college pursing a degree in jazz performance, that he was finally diagnosed with dyslexia. After the nightmare of his school days, the diagnosis came as an enormous relief. My older siblings were clever in class, but I was regarded as being lazy. There was no help from the teachers in those days.” It is his passion for music, and jazz in particular, that kept him going through the many obstacles he faced. “I could not have accomplished what I have without having a passion for music and a strong commitment to my goals. As a student, I have had to embrace struggle as a necessary part of my growth.” “Understanding that I wasn't stupid, and that I just learned differently was a long journey that required a lot of reflection, perseverance and hard work. I learned that just the label of dyslexia is not enough to help a struggling learner.” He devised ingenious methods of using technologies such as slow-speed transcribers, digital dictaphones, computers, and i Pods to help him in his studies. He now advises others with dyslexia to do the same. In teaching children with dyslexia, Mulcahy believes the best approach is to focus on their strengths. Excerpt from: “Seasoned Chef Still Perfecting His Recipe for Success” Linda Broatch Great As the sous chef at a five-star hotel in Florida, Jeremy Emerson once faced a situation so terrifying that he briefly imagined abandoning the career he loved. He was asked, without warning, to read aloud during a meeting of the hotel's 30-plus department heads. And he did what many dyslexic adults do in such situations, no matter how confident they usually are—he panicked. Raised in England in the 1970's and 80's, Jeremy spent his elementary and secondary school years struggling to learn, not aware that he had dyslexia. Picking up on cues from the adults around him, he assumed that he must be lazy or stupid. Dyslexia runs in families, and both of Jeremy's brothers are dyslexic. Jeremy's older brother, Julian, had been “asked to leave school.” Yet he is now a software engineer for Intel. Jeremy has been the Executive Chef at San Francisco's Four Seasons Hotel since 2003, where he manages a staff of 50. Three decades after his Pompidou Center in Paris turned the architecture world upside down and brought him global fame, the British architect Richard Rogers has been named the 2007 winner of the Pritzker Prize, the profession's highest honor. The award—a $100,000 grant and a bronze medallion—is to be presented to Rogers on June 4, 2007 at the Banqueting House in London. Other high profile projects by Rogers include the sprawling Millennium Dome in Greenwich, England; the new terminal at Barajas International Airport in Madrid; and Terminal 5 at London's Heathrow Airport. Yet when his family moved to England in 1938, Richard struggled through the public school system. It was not until many years later that he received a diagnosis of dyslexia. “We didn't know about dyslexia.” To read the entire article, click here. (Japanese) Since his primary school days, Todo felt his efforts to write kanji were in vain, no matter how hard he tried. When he was in primary school, his mother taught him how to pronounce and guess the meaning of kanji by breaking them into their elements, much the way that foreign students study kanji. He still makes major mistakes when writing in kanji, and often confuses certain hiragana characters. “It's like all the textual information is coming out to me at once,” he explained. “It's so tiring to find my place.” Todo's memories of school life in Japan are bitter. In primary, his teachers did not accept students as they were, but instead, insisted on forcing the “different” students to become “normal.” Todo was labeled a difficult student and was treated as such. He became even more frustrated while at boarding school during his middle school years. “But my mother always accepted me the way I am,” he said. “If you can realize, even just once, that someone appreciates who you are, that feeling can last long, give you hope, and eventually the courage to try something.” His mother sent him to Britain for high school, where his relatives had once worked or studied. The testing also revealed his strengths, in particular, excellent spatial perception. He studied 3-D modeling and graphic design when he took his A-levels at Cambridge. In 2002, he matriculated to London's Architectural Association School of Architecture, where he graduated this summer. After his diagnosis, his mother, Eiko, established a nonprofit organization in Japan called EDGE (Extraordinary Dyslexic Gifted Eclectic) to help those with dyslexia improve their innate strengths further so they can live with self-confidence. Christie Craig is an award-winning writer, whose zany, humorous tales of romance, suspense, and life at its wackiest is one reason four of her books were accepted for publication on the very same day. During the interview, the reporter asked about her dyslexia: Q: How difficult was it for a kid with dyslexia to grow into a successful romance novelist? A: I seriously believe that I succeeded in this very hard business not in spite of my dyslexia, but in part, because of it. We pick up on people's emotions, body language, and tone of voice. Nothing came easy to me, and I didn't expect writing to be any different. So I could easily tap into human emotions, add my imagination, and—bingo. To learn more about Christie Craig and her books, go to The most needed tool to make it in this business I already had tucked inside—perseverance. Excerpt from: “Living with dyslexia” Debbie Macomber has written more than 100 books. She has sold more than 60 million books worldwide, and is a New York Times bestselling author. Not bad for someone who couldn't read until she was 11. “I was the only girl in the slow reading group,” says Debbie, on a visit to Dublin to publicize her latest book. “I am dyslexic, but they didn't have a word for that when I was a child,” says Debbie, who is from Washington State. “My teacher said, ‘Debbie is a nice girl, but she will never do well at school.’ And I didn't.” To read the rest of this story, click here. Excerpt from: “Schultz wins Pulitzer Prize” Deepti Hajela Democrat And Rochester, New York, native and poet Philip Schultz is among this year's winners of the Pulitzer Prizes. In a recent interview with Garrison Keillor, Schultz said he was a “terrible student” who suffered from dyslexia. He did not learn to read until he was in the fifth grade. Associated Press George Archer, the former Masters champion who died in September, kept a lifelong secret that his widow recently revealed in Golf for Women magazine. “Despite years of effort, he never learned to read beyond a rudimentary level. He never could write more than a few crude sentences,” Donna Archer wrote in the article, “The Secret They Shared”. “Eventually, he was able to get through an article on the sports page, and he learned to write his name for autographs,” she wrote, “But that was it.” “Over the years, George became incredibly adept at covering up his disability. But he was always afraid fans would want him to personalize an autograph, or that he'd have to read some prepared sentences on television.” When Duncan Goodhew won the 100 meter breaststroke gold medal at the Moscow Olympics in 1980, he knew his life would never be the same. He said, “For me, the whole process of swimming was to change the deck of cards, because dyslexia is incredibly corrosive to your spirit. “At the age of seven, I was asked to read out loud in class. I was fidgeting so much that I was literally tied to a chair and put in a corner with the dunce's hat on. “There was a lack of understanding then—and it's still happening. “Dyslexia is like being in a job you're not qualified for, and you don't speak the language. You're sitting there being told you are stupid all day, every day. “School gave me a fundamental understanding of what I was not good at. It gave me an acute desire to find something, a life preserver, and I found swimming.” , September 27, 2007 Olympic fencer Molly Sliney spent the day at Highlands School last Friday. I decided to believe that I was dumb and stupid.” To learn how she turned her life around by reading the entire story, click here. The athlete, coach and motivational speaker shared not only her fencing expertise, but also her struggle with dyslexia, telling students that she is proof that anyone can set goals and achieve them if they learn to believe in themselves. She returned to her seat, frustrated and stung by their taunts of “dumb” and “stupid.” “Boys and girls, when people say bad things about you,” she said, “you have two choices. Excerpt from: “Please look after the poor wee boy at the back” David Leafe uk Reclining in the comfort of an executive limousine and looking every inch the motor-racing legend and multimillionaire businessman that he is, Sir Jackie Stewart shared that his parents were baffled by his poor performance at school. Her many accomplishments in sports are impressive: Yet her proudest accomplishment was receiving her degree from Notre Dame. Her teacher gave her “the easiest word on the list” to spell. He remembers with horror one occasion when, as a little boy, he was asked to read in front of the class. Not bad for a kid who couldn't read until the age of 9. “All I could see as I looked at the book was a jungle: a whole clutter of words. My teacher, Miss Shaw, was telling me to get on with it, but I was blushing and couldn't swallow. “All around me, the other children were sniggering, or pretending to blow their noses to hide their laughter.” Describing school as “the most painful and humiliating period of my life,” he recalls his desire to leave school at the age of 15. “When you are being called thick, dumb and stupid, you end up leaning towards others who are like you, who won't humiliate and abuse you. Unfortunately, I ended up in a very bad crowd.” It was not until he was 42, and one of his sons was diagnosed with dyslexia, that he discovered, “I wasn't stupid after all. I felt like I had been saved from drowning.” To read the entire story, click here. Because I was teased in school, I became a master at “fake it until you make it.” In meetings, I'd pretend I could read the papers being passed out. , April 2, 2008 With a $2,000 loan from my mother, I have grown my Tempe-based firm, Terri's Consign & Design Furnishings, into the largest U. resale furniture retailer, with 16 stores and $36 million in annual sales. People ask if I attribute my success to overcoming dyslexia. I tell them that I have not, and never will, overcome dyslexia. Yes, I run a national company, but I still use a Franklin Talking Dictionary to try to spell fifth-grade vocabulary words. But at least I've shown my grade school teachers that it is not that I wasn't trying hard enough. To read the entire article, and learn about the many tools Terri uses to compensate, click here. , June 27, 2007 John Chambers leads one of the largest high tech firms in the world—networking gear maker Cisco Systems—but the West Virginia native could not keep up with classmates as an elementary student. Chambers suffered from dyslexia, crippling his reading abilities and damaging his confidence. “There's nothing harder on you than when people come around the classroom in first, second, and third grade and call on you. Your stomach tightens up; you know you'll mess up the reading,” he told IBD. Chambers says dyslexia is especially frustrating because more effort couldn't fix the problem. “My parents would sit and read with me in the evening, and it would get worse, not better,” he said. The process did more than help him read more easily. “Once you understand that you can overcome something that you doubted you would ever overcome, you gain more inner confidence. It helped me learn to deal with the challenges in life.” To read the entire story, click here. Excerpt from: “Barbara Corcoran: ‘Jersey girl’ trumped Trump with street smarts” Jay Mc Donald As a girl growing up in New Jersey, Barbara Corcoran would gaze across the Hudson River at the Manhattan skyline, not knowing that one day, she would reign as queen of New York residential real estate. Severe dyslexia earned her nothing more than straight D's in school and dire warnings from the nuns. “I was terrified that I would make a huge mistake.” The night before filming began, Jo was sick all night long. But what she could not accomplish in school, she made up for with a winning personality and a way with people. , May 28, 2010 Fearless on the shop floor and in the boardroom, fragrance tycoon Jo Malone found the transition from business guru to TV presenter terrifying. The next morning, she told the editor, “I can't do this. I can't read the script.” To find out what happened next, and how this high school dropout became a business guru, click here to read the entire article. , June 6, 2008 Evan Paul started playing video games to escape from the realities of middle school. Evan, who is dyslexic, recently completed his freshman year at the University of Arizona. He is founder and CEO of the online game-trading site, e Game Place.com, valued at $30 million. “Going through school, I felt like I was a stupid failure,” Evan shared. “Slowly but surely, because I did not give up, I eventually began to learn to read and things began to come together for me. It was by no means easy.” Evan would play video games when he came home from school, after a long day of bullying and struggling in class. “When I was younger, the only people who believed in me were myself and my family.” Last year, he started the Dyslexic Dream Foundation, and he donates 70 to 80 percent of his earnings to fund programs to help students overcome dyslexia. “The goal of the foundation is to raise awareness, and to educate teachers and schools,” he said. “I also set up scholarships because some of the great private schools cost more than some colleges.” To read the entire article, click here. Excerpt from: “Leadership guru addresses chamber” Reflector.com, October 6, 2010 Former CEO and president of Up With People, the largest non-profit in the world, Tommy Spaulding has become a guru on the topic of leadership. In a luncheon speech to promote his book, he shared how he won a prestigious Rotary Ambassadorial Scholarship to get an MBA—despite struggling with dyslexia in school. As an East Carolina University graduate with only a 2.0 GPA, he faced stiff competition for the scholarship from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton graduates with perfect academic records. His experience with his college roommate who was paralyzed in his freshman year, plus his rejection by 35 law schools, pulled at the heart strings of the committee. But it was his treatment of the bartender at the hotel where the scholarship committee held interviews that got him the award. The committee was deadlocked between Spaulding and a Harvard graduate when the chairman asked the bartender what he thought. Spaulding had spent hours talking to the bartender about his life and family, while the other applicants ignored him. “The committee heard about my heart and passion from the bartender, and they overlooked my grades,” he said. Spaulding's book, , December 6, 2007 It has long been known that dyslexics are drawn to running their own businesses, where they can get around their weaknesses in reading and writing and play on their strengths. But a new study of entrepreneurs in the United States suggests that dyslexia is much more common among small-business owners than even the experts had thought. The report, compiled by Julie Logan, a professor of entrepreneurship at the Cass Business School in London, found that more than a third of the entrepreneurs she surveyed identified themselves as dyslexic. “We found that dyslexics who succeed had overcome an awful lot in their lives by developing compensatory skills,” said Professor Logan. “If you tell your friends that you plan to start a business, you'll hear over and over, ‘It won't work. It can't be done.’ But dyslexics are extraordinarily creative about maneuvering their way around problems.” To read the entire article, click here. Excerpt from: “First Person: A Judge's Story” Jeffrey H. I couldn't write, spell, or read, or answer questions quickly. Gallet Everyone at school said that I was lazy or stupid or both. I didn't even know which hand to put over my heart when we recited the Pledge of Allegiance. My mother was a trained teacher, but even she did not understand dyslexia. But my parents never gave up on me, although it must have been a great disappointment to those two scholarly people that their first born could barely graduate from high school. They encouraged me to go to college and I did, graduating last in my class. I wanted to go to law school, and Brooklyn Law School took a chance on me. I was lucky to have loving parents, as well as a college professor and a law school roommate who supported me, encouraged me, tutored me, and refused to let me fall victim to my frustrations and give up. I wasn't diagnosed with a learning disability until I was 35. Having failed English courses in both high school and college, I finally learned how to write. But today, with 5 books and over 30 articles to my credit, I still suffer from an irrational fear that I am about to make a fool of myself every time I sit down to write. I agreed to write this article, after first refusing, because as a judge, almost every week I see a learning disabled child who, undiagnosed or untreated, is venting his or her frustrations in anti-social ways. If not for loving, caring, involved parents, my frustrations at not being able to keep up in class, and to some extent in the play yard, could have burst forth in the same self-destructive way. The schools and the courts have not met their responsibilities to LD children. They have not allocated the resources to do what must be done. To read the entire article, which includes Judge Gallet's attempts to improve the judicial system, click here. Excerpt from: “AP Interview: Malloy overcame dyslexia, physical struggles” Susan Haigh Boston.com, May 29, 2006 When Dan Malloy accepted the Democratic Party's nomination for governor at this month's state convention, he mentioned how proud his mother would have been had she lived to see that moment. As a child, Malloy struggled to read, calculate math problems, and even tie his shoes. He suffered from dyslexia at a time when the term “learning disabilities” was uncommon. As late as fourth grade, Malloy's teachers thought he was mentally retarded. He recalls how one teacher posted his failing spelling grades on the chalkboard. Malloy, 50, and mayor of Stamford, said “People from my childhood would not have predicted the level of success I've been able to accomplish.” To read the entire interview, click here. Maggie Aderin, who holds a Bachelors degree in Physics and a Ph. in Mechanical Engineering, has built telescopes, has helped create instruments to test missile warning systems and detect landmines, as well as satellites that monitor climate change. Yet her teachers dismissed her when she declared she wanted to study science because she had dyslexia. She shared: I was not considered very bright because I had dyslexia. When I first told my teachers I wanted to study science, they shook their heads and said I should consider something else. My father always said if you work hard, you can achieve so much. Although I suffered from dyslexia, I was quite logical, and I really loved science because I loved being hands on. When people realized I was good at science, I got lots of tuition and encouragement. In her first year at Imperial College in London, she was one of only two black people, and one of only ten women, in her class of 200. The work is hard, the pay is good, and it can be fun. Her company, Science Innovation Limited, has a program to get the public engaged in science, especially girls and minorities. She'll also appear in two of the BBC's upcoming six-part science series, “The Cosmos: A Beginner's Guide.” To read the rest of her story, click here. Excerpt from: “Obama picks alumnus for teaching excellence award” Cayla Gales State Hornet.com, December 8, 2010 Shortly after failing third grade, Mark Fairbank found out he had dyslexia. But that did not stop him from becoming an award-winning teacher. President Obama recently declared Fairbank one of the top science and math teachers in the country. He will receive the Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching. every single day, including Saturdays and Sundays, so I could make it through.” He received help from his mother, who read textbooks to him, and from his wife and best friend who typed his papers. Excerpt from: “Jack Horner: An Intellectual Autobiography” Jack Horner I suffered from a lack of confidence due to dyslexia. Thompson said, “but you also just explained me.” To read the entire article, click here. Even as a third grader, Fairbank knew he wanted to teach chemistry. So I went to community college for three years,” Fairbank said. I wasn't diagnosed until well after I had reached adulthood, had struggled through school being considered lazy, dumb, and perhaps even retarded, and had flunked out of college seven times. Excerpt from: “Award May Be a Big Brake for Clever Edward” Joseph Watts This Is uk, October 1, 2007 He may be too young to drive, but that has not stopped Edward Wilson from winning a top prize for a road-safety invention. Most people expected I'd wind up working at a service station, or if I was really lucky, I might get to drive a truck at my father's gravel plant. At home, there was usually a microscope on the dinner table. The 16-year-old's innovative brake light system shows how quickly a car is slowing, and it won Edward the Design and Innovation Trophy at the 2007 Young Engineer for Britain awards. Kindergarten through eighth grade was extremely difficult for me because my progress in reading, writing, and mathematics was excruciatingly slow. he researched human temperature regulation at the National Institutes of Health. Edward's device, called Slow Safe, warns a driver that the car ahead of them is slowing without the person in the car in front putting their foot on the brake. I would never read out loud in class, even if the teachers threatened to give me failing grades. This patent-pending invention should reduce accidents and traffic jams. The joke was that I only carried schoolbooks to ballast my lanky body against the strong winds of Montana. Instead of writing things down, he kept information in his head. Edward will be giving presentations to car manufacturers for the next few months, trying to persuade them to use Slow Safe. an extraordinarily bad speller and have remained so until this day. Eventually, I managed to graduate from high school, but just barely, having received Ds in all required classes, including English, in which my grade was a D minus, minus, minus. in which I excelled: science projects.” Jack Horner became one of the most well known paleontologists in the world. His mother, Serena Wilson, shared that her son's achievement was all the more impressive because he also had to deal with dyslexia. He even wrote his own computer program, and no one taught him how to do that. “At times, his dyslexia made things hard, but he persevered.” To read the entire article, click here. where nobody understood the meaning of learning disorder. Writing and spelling were always terribly difficult for me. Agatha Christie I was, on the whole, considerably discouraged by my school days. The teacher told me that this was essentially an F, but that he never wanted to see me again. He has discovered the most dinosaur eggs, the first dinosaur embryos, and three species of dinosaurs. In the West Indies, I was constantly being physically abused because the whipping of students was permitted. Cannell, screenwriter, producer, & director I never read in school. Almost everything I learned, I had to learn by listening. It was not pleasant to feel oneself so completely outclassed and left behind at the beginning of the race. Although he never graduated from college, Jack received the Mac Arthur Foundation Award (called the “Genius Award”), several honorary doctorate degrees, and served as technical advisor for all of the Jurassic Park films. Excerpt from: “Billionaire inventor James Sorenson dies at 86” Diana Rosenthal CNNMoney.com, January 22, 2008 James Sorenson, inventor of the computerized heart monitor and of disposable paper surgical masks, died on Sunday. Harry Belafonte Since I was the stupidest kid in my class, it never occurred to me to try and be perfect, so I've always been happy as a writer just to entertain myself. I got really bad grades—D's and F's and C's in some classes, and A's and B's in other classes. My report cards always said that I was not living up to my potential. Winston Churchill I had to train myself to focus my attention. Although he was the richest man in Utah when he died, with a fortune estimated at $4.5 billion, he struggled through the Great Depression, and dyslexia, to emerge as one of the century's great inventors. Excerpt from: “Professor transcended dyslexia for a life of the mind” Stephanie Hayes Tampa Bay.com, November 3, 2007 He was the kid with the butterfly net. I became very visual and learned how to create mental images in order to comprehend what I read. Tom Cruise You should prefer a good scientist without literary abilities than a literate one without scientific skills. my father thought I was stupid, and I almost decided I must be a dunce. Thomas Edison He told me that his teachers reported that … he was mentally slow, unsociable, and adrift forever in his foolish dreams. Hans Albert Einstein, on his father, Albert Einstein Having made a strenuous effort to understand the symbols he could make nothing of, he wept giant tears… Caroline Commanville, on her uncle, Gustave Flaubert Kids made fun of me because I was dark skinned, had a wide nose, and was dyslexic. Even as an actor, it took me a long time to realize why words and letters got jumbled in my mind and came out differently. Danny Glover, actor I barely made it through school. But I like to find things that nobody else has found, like a dinosaur egg that has an embryo inside. Horner, American paleontologist I am, myself, a very poor visualizer and find that I can seldom call to mind even a single letter of the alphabet in purely retinal terms. Well, there are 36 of them in the world, and I found 35. I must trace the letter by running my mental eye over its contour in order that the image of it shall leave any distinctness at all. William James, psychologist and philosopher I just barely got through school. The problem was a learning disability, at a time when there was nowhere to get help. My solution back then was to read classic comic books because I could figure them out from the context of the pictures. Charles Schwabb My problem was reading very slowly. As long as you're going to read, just keep at it.” We didn't know about learning disabilities back then. Bruce Jenner, Olympic gold medalist The looks, the stares, the giggles … Nelson Rockefeller When I had dyslexia, they didn't diagnose it as that. I could tell you a lot of horror stories about what you feel like on the inside. Roger Wilkins, Head of the Pulitzer Prize Board As a child, I was called stupid and lazy. My parents had no idea that I had a learning disability. I wanted to show everybody that I could do better and also that I could read. although he was bright and intelligent and bursting with energy, he was unable to read and write. Henry Winkler My father was an angry and impatient teacher and flung the reading book at my head. Patton's wife corrected his spelling, his punctuation, and his grammar. William Butler Yeats Willie was sent to lessons in spelling and grammar, but he never learned to spell. Biographer Martin Blumenson on General George Patton I was one of the “puzzle children” myself—a dyslexic … To the end of his life he produced highly idiosyncratic versions of words. Norman Jeffares on William Butler Yeats I hated school.… One of the reasons was a learning disability, dyslexia, which no one understood at the time. Loretta Young Excerpt from: “Letter: Septuagenarian triumphs over dyslexia thanks to tutor” Edward Hall TCPalm.com, December 23, 2007 Recently, I read a book for the first time. But for a man in his 70's, this meant the world to me. My wife told me I had actually given her a sympathy card. Historically, students with dyslexia have been ignored, labeled “dumb,” put in the back of the room and left alone. The reality is that those with dyslexia are bright and eager to learn. Excerpt from: “Overcoming obstacles: Dyslexia doesn't hold down FVTC grad” Krista B. I spent decades living in shame and fear of being “found out.” I refused countless promotions just so my co-workers would not learn I could not read. A volunteer tutor in an adult literacy program taught Mr. Ledbetter The Northwestern.com, December 10, 2006 Tina Krueger, 45, spent nearly 20 years working in the Osh Kosh B'Gosh factory before her department shut down in 2004. I look at them now and wonder, ‘What was I trying to say? There are so many people out there willing to help. Left without a job, she made the decision to return to school. ’” It took a leap of faith for her to enroll in FVTC. You are not doing it alone.” To read the entire article, click here. But one hurdle stood in her way—Krueger has dyslexia. “It was a difficult two years,” admitted Kruger, who attended full-time. Excerpt from: “How I hid not being able to read or write” Linda Worden uk, July 30, 2008 Thinking back to my school days, all I can remember is the pain as I struggled from a young age. Krueger says she has moderate to severe dyslexia which made schooling difficult for as long as she can remember. On Saturday, she graduated with an AA degree in Marketing and a 3.9 grade point average. Classes were so big that I would just sit quietly at the back, or find any excuse not to be there at all. My reports were full of the usual lines: “Linda could do better … There were times I would miss something important—appointments, bills—because I didn't dare to open the mail. Linda's lazy,” when, in fact, I just kept quiet so no one would notice that I could not do the work. Yet I could sell myself, coming across as full of confidence, impressing people at face value. What I lost through not being able to read and write, I gained in other ways. People always commented on my smile and cheerful personality. I have done all sorts of jobs—including factory work and restaurant work—but the minute I received any sort of promotion that would have revealed my weaknesses, I'd leave. Excerpt from: “Kersten: Defeating dyslexia at home” Katherine Kerston Star Tribune.com, August 18, 2005 For years I dreaded this time of year: back-to-school time. For my elementary-school-aged daughter, it meant another year of teasing, frustration, and a constant sense of defeat. I first realized that something was wrong during her kindergarten year. Try as we might, with songs, games and repetition, she couldn't learn the alphabet. After first grade, my husband and I had her tested. She scored between the fifth and tenth percentiles in reading—as if she had never been to school. In the classroom and on the playground, my daughter endured misery. Often, her teachers didn't comprehend the nature of her difficulties, or thought she wasn't trying. “Learning to read at school was like trying to run through mud,” she says now. “You struggle so hard, but you never seem to get anywhere.” To read the entire article, click here. Excerpt of an article Imogen Stubbs, a parent, published by an Australian newspaper. For many dyslexic children, the experience of reading and writing is like driving in a foreign country. Everything seems to be on the wrong side, going in the wrong direction. It requires exhausting concentration—and you experience a sense of tension, fear and total isolation as everyone roars past, hooting and looking at you as if you were an idiot. When you finally reach your destination, after many wrong turns and a circuitous route that has taken an insanely long time, you then have no desire ever to get behind the wheel again. You could excel behind the wheel, if only you were on familiar roads. Meanwhile, your hosts have gone off to a party without you. Her child wrote: when i do riting and pariigrafs my brayn is uncunferdble and herts and i get the writ word but wen it travls down my arm it disapeeurs befour it coms out of my hand and sumtymes im chrying. Excerpt from: “A Senior Citizen Reflects on Her Lifelong Struggle With Dyslexia” Janet Bell Great In June 1928, my mother enrolled me in first grade. I was going to learn wonderful things and have lots of fun. In the years that followed, I found school was full of fear and frustration. I quickly was labeled “the dumb kid.” Every day in school, I hid behind the child in front of me so the teacher wouldn't call on me. Writing the alphabet was easy, but reading it was a problem. This played havoc with my spelling, and I worked hard to memorize words for weekly spelling tests. I studied every night, but my father would get frustrated with me. He'd bang his fist on the table and say something like, “Use your head! ” In spite of all this, I managed to receive a high school diploma. But my belief that I was dumb overshadowed my entire adult life. Three years ago, at the suggestion of a co-worker, I purchased a book on dyslexia. As I read the first few pages, I was in shock and tears. My immediate and joyful reaction was, “Dear Blessed God, I am not dumb. At last I knew there was a reason for my being different—different, not dumb. Today a teacher or dyslexia testing specialist can say to parents, “Your daughter has dyslexia, and we can help her.” How I wish my parents could have heard those words. When Mackenzie Meyer was identified with dyslexia, she was told she would not be able to reach her goal of becoming a veterinarian. As a result, she has pursued her dream in full force and is a shining example for any LD student who has been told to lower her expectations. Here is the beginning of her essay: President Obama has a nation of educators looking for “it.” Steve Jobs of Apple Computer wants to unleash “it.” Superpower countries like the US, China and India are in the race of their lives for “it.” As for me … well, I already have “it.” Actually, I was born with “it.” I was born with the gift to create, to invent new ways of doing and being. I am a person who learns differently and therefore, by default, sees differently and will help this planet in ways it has yet to see. Oh, yeah, I know it sounds like I have it totally together and have long since figured out that having a learning disability is a gift. Just as it is with anybody who has a disability, you have two choices: you can take the easy way out and accept that you will have a life with limits, or decide that you are going to fight for the life you want to have and are meant to have. To read the rest of this inspiring essay, click here. Source: “The Gift of Learning Differently” Mackenzie Meyer Application essay for the Anne Ford and Allegra Ford Scholarship Published April 28, 2010 Excerpt from: “College Student with Learning Disabilities Designs His Own Future” Linda Broatch Great Schools.org, March 11, 2005 Identified with dyslexia in sixth grade, Charles Rachal always struggled in school. Even now, with college graduation in sight, he seems a little surprised at what he has accomplished. During middle school and high school, it seemed that no matter how hard he worked, he rarely made good grades—and regularly made bad ones. Fortunately, his parents didn't pressure him about his grades, except when they thought he hadn't given a class his best effort. “It took me 15 years to figure out how to do well in school. When you have a disability, you have to use your strengths to defeat it.” To read the entire article and his advice to parents of kids with learning and attention problems, click here. Excerpt from: “Spinning in My Head” Henry Sherwin Great Schools.org, April 13, 2001 What's good and smart about me? I have a good memory and can remember songs and what people say in movies. Animals love me because I'm not afraid, and they sense this. I'm good at playing the clarinet and the saxophone. And I can make anyone laugh with my voices and faces. My mother and teachers call it a learning disability. This means I can't learn things as fast as other kids, and languages are harder. It's tough when I see others succeeding, and I can't do it as easily. The “Good Zone” is when things fall into place and click for me. Here are some things that help me get into the “Good Zone.” To read the rest of Henry's article, click here. Excerpt from: “The Path to Success: Pearls of Wisdom from Anne Ford Scholarship Applicants” Noreen Byren Here is one excerpt of an Anne Ford Scholarship application: I am a very determined person, and I don't like being told that I have limits on what I can do with my life. Fact: Dyslexia is one of the most researched and documented conditions that will impact children. I am the kind of person who believes that one person can change the world and make it a better place, and that you can do anything you set your mind to. I no longer want to do this just to prove to everyone who ever doubted me that they were wrong. And when I do, I will be able to help children who went through the same thing I did. Over 30 years of independent, scientific, replicated, published research exists on dyslexia—much of it done through the National Institutes of Health, funded by taxpayer dollars. Even more research is contained in the books and websites on our More Info page. For years, my main goal was to graduate high school, go to college, and then go back to Dr. Take a look at the Dyslexia Fact Sheet published by the International Dyslexia Association. Some have it only mildly, some have it moderately, some have it severely, and some have it profoundly. Fact: According to the NIH researchers, in the United States, dyslexia impacts 20% of our population. Very few children with dyslexia are in the special education system. Only 1 in 10 will be eligible for an IEP (when tested in second or third grade) under the category of Learning Disability (LD). That means 9 out of 10 “fall through the cracks.” Although the parents and the teacher know there's something different about the child, the child does not qualify for special education services, and most will no longer get help from the reading specialist after first or second grade. It is the most common reason a child will struggle first with spelling, then with written expression, and eventually “hit the wall” in reading development by third grade. It seems when boys in first, second, or third grade can't do classroom assignments or homework, they get frustrated and act out their frustration. Fact: Although more boys are sent for testing than girls, research shows that dyslexia impacts just as many girls as boys. Parents and teachers notice that behavior and then try to figure out why they are behaving that way—by sending them for testing. But often, when girls in first, second, or third grade can't do the work, they tend to get quiet, move to the back of the room, and try to become invisible. Often, their dyslexia is not discovered until high school or even college. That is why vision therapy does not work for this population. Yes, they reverse their b's and their d's and say “was” for “saw.” But that's caused by their lifelong confusion over left versus right and by their difficulty reading by sounding out. That means waiting—due to a false hope that it will disappear as the child gets older—is the worst thing you can do. The child will only get further and further behind—unless that child gets the right type of intervention or tutoring. Fact: People with dyslexia do not see things backwards. All the experts agree: Waiting is the worst thing you can do. There are effective research-based methods that will bring their reading, spelling, and writing skills up to—and beyond—grade level. Although it is never too late to greatly improve their skills, early intervention is the best way to prevent or minimize the damage to their self-esteem, their emotional distress, and their fear of going to school. Fact: Most children will reverse some of their letters and some of their numbers while they are learning. Up to a certain point, that is considered perfectly normal. But those reversals should be gone after two years of handwriting instruction and practice. But letter or number reversals that continue after two years of handwriting instruction and practice are a classic warning sign of dyslexia. If a child truly has dyslexia, however, the child will have many of the other classic warning signs of dyslexia. Fact: Professionals with in-depth training can accurately diagnose dyslexia as early as age 5. Doctors have no training in how to test for reading, spelling, and writing problems. To learn who should—and who should not—test for dyslexia, the types of tests that are given, and the types of errors and difficulties that a tester is looking for, click here. And there is no medical solution (no pill or operation) for those types of academic struggles. That is also why medical insurance does not cover anything having to do with dyslexia. The International Dyslexia Association publishes a Fact Sheet on Testing. That means you can have a very high IQ and be dyslexic, you can have an average IQ and be dyslexic, and you can have low IQ and be dyslexic. Many people with dyslexia are very bright and accomplish amazing things as adults. Take a look at our list of over 200 famous dyslexics. Fact: Everyone with dyslexia can read—up to a point. But they will “hit the wall” in reading development by third grade, if not sooner. When reading, they have great difficulty sounding out an unknown word—despite being taught phonics. They will often read a word fine on one page, but not recognize the very same word on the next page. But it is spelling that separates kids with dyslexia from kids who struggle with reading for some other reason. If the child and their parents spend hours and hours studying the spelling list, the child may be able to learn the list of 20 spelling words long enough to do “okay” on Friday's test. But they cannot retain those spelling words from one week to the next. They also cannot spell when writing sentences or paragraphs—not even the high frequency words such as “because,” “friend,” or “does.” That's why extreme difficulty with spelling is considered a classic warning sign of dyslexia—and why the International Dyslexia Association publishes a Fact Sheet on Spelling. Fact: Independent, scientific, replicated research on reading development shows just the opposite. It shows that if a child is struggling with reading, writing, and spelling in mid-first grade, that child has better than 90% odds of still struggling with those skills in eighth grade and on into adulthood if someone doesn't step in and do something. That means less than 10% of the time will a child outgrow those struggles. That also means waiting is the worst thing you can do. The child is only going to get further and further behind. Fact: Dyslexia is not the only reason a child will struggle with reading, but it is the most common reason. Phonics is not the answer for a child with dyslexia. How can you tell whether dyslexia is the cause of the child's reading struggles? The teacher can use the best phonics program in the world, but it will not prevent a child with dyslexia from “hitting the wall” by third grade. That's why these organizations are against retention. Most parents already know that phonics does not help. That's why a classic warning sign of dyslexia is a child who can not sound out an unknown word—despite being taught phonics. “Through many years of research, the practice of retaining children has been shown to be ineffective in meeting the needs of children who are academically delayed.” “Social promotion and grade retention are mechanical responses to an educational problem. Most parent have already tried “Hooked on Phonics”—and it did not improve their child's reading or spelling. The scandal is how little attention they give to preventing failure in the first place.” “Neither social promotion nor retention is appropriate for students who do not meet high academic standards.” “The weight of the evidence of literally hundreds of studies shows that retaining children does NOT produce higher achievement.” For links to these studies, click here. Fact: Reading out loud will not teach a dyslexic child how to sound out unknown words. They will continue to try to memorize the shape of a word, and use picture clues or context clues to guess at the words. If a child cannot easily and accurately sound out unknown words, especially multi-syllable words, by the time the child starts third grade, that child will “hit the wall” in reading development. Reading out loud for 20 minutes a day will not teach that missing skill—reading by sounding out, which is also called “decoding” or “word attack.” The inability to decode is caused by weak phonemic awareness skills. Part of the research-based definition of dyslexia is a child who lacks age appropriate phonemic awareness skills. Fact: People with dyslexia can become excellent readers, decent spellers, and good writers if they receive the right type of intervention or tutoring. Independent, scientific, replicated research recommends an Orton-Gillingham based system as the most effective way to improve the reading, writing, and spelling skills of people with dyslexia. That's why the International Dyslexia Association publishes two fact sheets on Orton-Gillingham. There are seven well-known Orton-Gillingham based systems. The Barton Reading & Spelling System is one of the best. Fact: If students with dyslexia do not receive the right type of tutoring and classroom accommodations, they often struggle in school—despite being bright, motivated, and spending hours on homework assignments. Even though he sometimes fails, he will not give up on his education. He wrote this open letter to educators: You have questioned my abilities and my need for help. You have no concept of the effort and time it takes for me to achieve my accomplishments because you have never allowed me what I need to show my full potential. I could give up and walk away from getting an education, but I am not a quitter. You can assist me in getting an education by making accommodations that have been proven to help me, or you can allow me to fail and hope I will go away. 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What is Mac's World Live? - Mac McKoy Before the National Institutes of Health began their research in the 1980's, the only definition of dyslexia was an exclusionary one. If a child's difficulty with reading could not be explained by low intelligence, poor eyesight, poor hearing, inadequate educational opportunities, or any other problem, then the child must be dyslexic. That definition was not satisfactory to parents, teachers, or researchers. So here are three different definitions in use today. Dyslexia is a neurologically-based, often familial, disorder which interferes with the acquisition and processing of language. Varying in degrees of severity, it is manifested by difficulties in receptive and expressive language, including phonological processing, in reading, writing, spelling, handwriting, and sometimes in arithmetic. Dyslexia is not the result of lack of motivation, sensory impairment, inadequate instructional or environmental opportunities, or other limiting conditions, but may occur together with these conditions. Although dyslexia is lifelong, individuals with dyslexia frequently respond successfully to timely and appropriate intervention. Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition, and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. “Learning Disability” is not a specific term; it is a category containing many specific disabilities, all of which cause learning to be difficult. The following definition of “learning disability” is used for legislative, financial, and educational purposes only. It is not a definition of dyslexia, which is one specific learning disability. The term “learning disability” means a disorder in one or more of the basic processes involved in understanding spoken or written language. It may show up as a problem in listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, or spelling or in a person's ability to do math, despite at least average intelligence. The term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or physical handicaps, or mental retardation, or emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. No two people with dyslexia are exactly alike because dyslexia ranges from mild to moderate to severe to profound. Therefore, someone with dyslexia may not have every single symptom listed below. Professional testers look for a “constellation” or cluster of symptoms in the following areas. If someone struggles with spelling, is a slow reader who has a difficult time sounding out unknown words, and has difficulty getting their great thoughts down on paper in acceptable form, and that person has 3 or more of these classic warning signs, it is worth getting that person tested for dyslexia. These problems are unexpected when compared to the person's proven abilities in other areas. One is also available on the warning signs of ADD/ADHD. Just click here, then type in your home or work mailing address. If three or more of these warning signs exist, especially if there is dyslexia or ADD/ADHD in the family tree, the child should be tested for dyslexia when the child becomes five years old. Also, phonemic awareness games and other reading readiness activities should be done daily during the preschool years. Learning any task that has a series of steps which must be completed in a specific order can be difficult. That's because you must memorize the sequence of steps, and often, there is no logic in the sequence. These tasks are usually challenging for people with dyslexia: Memorizing non-meaningful facts (facts that are not personally interesting and personally relevant) is extremely difficult for most dyslexic children and adults. In school, this leads to difficulty learning: People with dyslexia have an extremely difficult time organizing their belongings. They tend to pile things rather than to organize them and put them away. It is almost as though if they can't see the item (if it is behind a door or in a drawer), they will forget where it is. So they have extremely messy bedrooms, lockers, desks, backpacks, purses, offices, and garages. Their three-dimensional visualization skills help them “see” math concepts more quickly and clearly than non-dyslexic people. Unfortunately, difficulties in directionality, rote memorization, reading, and sequencing can make the following math tasks so difficult that their math gifts are never discovered. A small percentage (3% to 8%) of people with dyslexia also have light sensitivity (sometimes called scotopic sensitivity). These people have a hard time seeing small black print on white paper. The print seems to shimmer or move; some see the rivers of white more strongly than the black words. These people tend to dislike fluorescent lighting, and often “shade” the page with their hand or head when they read. Colored plastic overlays and/or colored lenses can eliminate the harsh black print against white paper contrast, and may make letters stand still for the first time in someone's life. However, the plastic overlays or colored lenses will not “cure” dyslexia, nor will they teach a dyslexic person how to read. NIH research has repeatedly demonstrated that lack of phonemic awareness is the root cause of reading failure. Phonemes are the smallest unit of spoken language, not written language. Children who lack phonemic awareness are unable to distinguish or manipulate sounds within spoken words or syllables. They would be unable to do the following tasks: If a child lacks phonemic awareness, they will have difficulty learning the relationship between letters and the sounds they represent in words, as well as applying those letter/sound correspondences to help them “sound out” unknown words. So children who perform poorly on phonemic awareness tasks via oral language in kindergarten are very likely to experience difficulties acquiring the early word reading skills that provide the foundation for growth of reading ability throughout elementary school. Phonemic awareness skills can and must be directly and explicitly taught to children who lack this awareness. Otherwise, the phonics instruction will not make sense to the dyslexic child. Phonological processing refers to understanding of sounds used in our language, ranging from big chunks of sound (words), to smaller chunks (syllables) and eventually to phonemic awareness (every sound within a syllable). Both phonemic awareness and phonological processing are auditory processing skills. Therefore, they can (and should) be taught before letters are introduced. The goal of teaching phonics is to link the individual sounds to letters, and to make that process fluent and automatic, for both reading and spelling. In other words, phonics teaches students symbol-to-sound and sound-to-symbol. But for phonics to work, a student must first have solid phonological processing and phonemic awareness. To see how these different items are taught, take a look at our How to Get Help page. Researchers have determined that a gene on the short arm of chromosome #6 is responsible for dyslexia. That gene is dominant, making dyslexia highly heritable. Dyslexia results from a neurological difference; that is, a brain difference. People with dyslexia have a larger right hemisphere in their brains than those of normal readers. That may be one reason people with dyslexia often have significant strengths in areas controlled by the right side of the brain, such as: In addition to unique brain architecture, people with dyslexia have unusual “wiring.” Neurons are found in unusual places in the brain, and they are not as neatly ordered as in non-dyslexic brains. In addition to unique brain architecture and unusual wiring, f/MRI studies have shown that people with dyslexia do not use the same part of their brain when reading as other people. Regular readers consistently use the same part of their brain when they read. People with dyslexia do not use that part of their brain, and there appears to be no consistent part used among dyslexic readers. It is therefore assumed that people with dyslexia are not using the most efficient part of their brain when they read. A different part of their brain has taken over that function. Excerpt from “Dissecting Dyslexia” Reading Children who cannot read fluently or spell accurately are often thought to lack intelligence or motivation. But in most cases, they are neither stupid nor lazy. They have dyslexia, which makes it difficult for them to understand written language despite having a normal—or higher than normal—IQ. Recent studies suggest that their reading difficulties are caused by identifiable genetic variations that create “faulty wiring” in certain areas of the brain. Luckily, most of our brain development occurs after we are born, when we interact with our environment. This means that the right teaching techniques can actually re-train the brain, especially when used early. , October 2006 This scholarly research article expands on the following: All four genes thus far linked to dyslexia impact brain development. Comparable abnormalities induced in young rodent brains cause auditory deficits, underscoring the potential relevance of these brain changes to dyslexia. Our perspective on dyslexia is that some of the brain changes cause phonological processing abnormalities as well as auditory processing abnormalities. Thus, we propose a pathway between a genetic effect, developmental brain changes, and perceptual deficits associated with dyslexia. , November 2, 2005 One year after scientists discovered a gene whose flaw contributes to dyslexia, two more such genes have been identified. The findings, described yesterday in Salt Lake City at a meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics, support the idea that many people deemed simply lazy or stupid, because of their severe reading problems, may instead have a genetic disorder that interfered with the wiring of their brains before birth. , December 2008 Dyslexia (reading disability) is a complex trait determined in large part by genetic factors. Association studies and translocation breakpoint analyses have proposed several genes as susceptibility candidates at some of the quantitative trait loci linked to dyslexia: DYX1C1 on chromosome 15, KIAA0319 and DCDC2 on chromosome 6, ROBO1 on chromosome 3, and MRPL19 and C20RF3 on chromosome 2. The results of this study both support the role of KIAA0319 in the development of dyslexia and and suggest that this gene influence reading ability in the general population. Moreover, the data implicate the three-SNP haplotype and its tagging SNP rs2143340 as genetic risk factors for poor reading performance. This research article is extremely technical but is a “must read” for those who want to understand the latest in genetic research. Scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered that a gene linked to dyslexia has a surprising biological function: it controls cilia, the antenna-like projections that cells use to communicate. Dyslelxia is largely hereditary and linked to a number of genes. One of these genes, DCDC2, is involved in regulating the signaling of cilia in brain neurons. , April 18, 2008 A team of Finnish and American geneticists have found that, for some people at least, music is in their genes. In what the researchers called the first study of its kind, they found specific regions of chromosomes that were connected to musical ability. The chromosomal regions that were found to be connected to music are known to be involved in the migration of neurons during development. And the study also found that the musical DNA overlapped with a region associated with dyslexia. Dyslexia exists in every country, even countries in which the written language is not phonetic. Genetic studies in western populations have suggested that DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for dyslexia. This study of 393 Chinese children determined that the very same gene is responsible for dyslexia in Chinese children. And those children have difficulty with rapid naming, phonological memory, and orthographic skills – just as dyslexic children in western countries do. In the early 1980's, the United States Congress mandated the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to research learning disabilities and answer 7 specific questions. After conducting longitudinal research plus numerous studies on genetics, interventions, and brain function, we now have a great deal of independent, scientific, replicated, published research on dyslexia. This section shares the research results released by the National Institutes of Health from 1994 to the present, as well as from dyslexia researchers in several others countries. The National Institutes of Health conducted a longitudinal study by tracking 5,000 children at random from all over the country starting when they were 4 years old until they graduated from high school. The researchers had no idea which children would develop reading difficulties and which ones would not. There were many theories at that time as to what caused reading difficulties, and which tests best predicted reading failure. The researchers tested these children 3 times a year for 14 years using a variety of tests that would either support or disprove the competing theories. But the researchers did NOT provide any type of training or intervention. From that research, they were able to determine which tests are most predictive of reading failure, at what age we can test children, and whether children outgrow their reading difficulties. This study also spawned numerous other NIH research projects. The results of these studies were released in 1994. A growing body of evidence supports her prediction and suggests that many of these children do not “outgrow” these problems, and that “simple” delays in communication may, in fact, be stable predictors of later learning disabilities. One set of researchers followed a group of children from ages 2 to 6. The children were identified at age 2 as “late talkers”. Although the majority outgrew their oral language delay by age 4, they demonstrated academic delays at ages 5 and 6. Another set of researchers found that the oral language disorders decreased over time, giving the impression of “recovery” by age 5. However, the majority of those children experienced reading disabilities by grade 2. , August 22, 2008 Atypical characteristics of children's linguistic development are early signs of the risk of dyslexia, and new research points to preventive exercises as an effective means to tackle the challenges children face when learning to read. The results achieved at the Centre of Excellence in Learning and Motivation Research were presented at Finland's Academy of Science breakfast on 21 August. Headed by Professor Lyytinen at the University of Jyvaskyla, the study compared 107 children with a dyslexic parent to a control group of children without a hereditary predisposition to dyslexia. The researchers followed the children from birth through school age. “Half of the children whose parents had difficulties in reading and writing found learning to read more challenging than children in the control group. The atypical characteristics of these children's linguistic development indicated the risk at a very early age,” says Lyytinen. According to Lyytinen, the predictors of reading and writing difficulties are evident primarily in two contexts: a delayed ability to perceive and mentally process the subtleties of a person's voice, and a sluggishness in naming familiar, visually presented objects. Significant difficulty with spelling, when writing sentences and stories, is the most obvious warning sign of dyslexia. That's why spelling is mentioned in the research-based definition of dyslexia used by the International Dyslexia Association and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), which is: Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. Poor spelling when writing essays and stories is a huge red flag of dyslexia. As part of Reading Rocket’s Meet The Experts series, Dr. Louisa Moats shares how reading problems show up first in spelling. Times uk, October 25, 2008 In the past, poor spelling was attributed to all manner of things, from bad schooling to a lack of moral fiber. A difficulty with spelling could be rooted in your genes and in the way your brain is wired. She then explains the importance of reading and spelling nonsense words. The International Dyslexia Association has recently released a 4-page fact sheet on Spelling (“Just the Facts…Spelling”), which states that people with dyslexia have “conspicuous problems” with spelling and writing. These findings stem from research into the language disorder dyslexia, but they are proving important for the wider population. The fact sheet quotes the research and explains how spelling needs to be taught. Produced by the International Dyslexia Association, posted on their website in 2008 Tony Monaco, a scientist at the Wellcome Centre Trust for Human Genetics, Oxford University, believes that our ability to spell lies partly in our DNA. In his study, his lab tracked the development of 6,000 children born in the early Nineties. Previous studies highlighted a particular gene that might affect reading ability, KIAA0319. We all carry it, but he found that 15 percent of the population have a slightly different version than normal. According to Professor Monaco, the normal version of the gene helps to guide brain cells into the cortex when a child is developing in the womb. When the gene is different, however, it is unable to properly fulfill its function; brain cells get lost on the journey and end up in the wrong place. “This may disrupt the processing of information,” he says. Excerpt from: “Brain Images Show Individual Dyslexic Children Respond To Spelling Treatment” Medical News Today.com, February 15, 2006 Brain images of children with dyslexia taken before they received spelling instruction show that they have different patterns of neural activity than do good spellers when doing language tasks related to spelling. But after specialized treatment emphasizing the letters in words, they showed similar patterns of brain activity. These findings are important because they show the human brain can change and normalize in response to spelling instruction, even in dyslexia, the most common learning disability. This 30-minute video, hosted by Henry Winkler, who has his own struggles with reading, explores how brain scientists are working to solve the puzzle of why some children struggle to read and others don't. Startling new research shows the answer may lie in how a child's brain is wired from birth. This program is the newest episode on , February 11, 2007 Dr. Just, a brain researcher at Carnegie Mellon University, and his colleagues, as well as brain imaging carried out at Georgetown University, Yale University and other centers, has proven that seeing letters in reverse or out of order is NOT the cause of dyslexia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI), which measures blood flow to different parts of the brain, researchers now know that dyslexia involves a weakness in the part of the brain that decodes the sounds of written language. That region sits above the left ear, at the junction of the brain's temporal and parietal lobes. Researchers have also shown that the right kind of intensive instruction can rewire the brain and help overcome reading deficits. When Carnegie Mellon scanned the brains of youngsters who received a year of concentrated reading instruction, they showed 40 percent more activity in the word decoding areas of their brains, Dr. A similar study at Yale showed that a year after receiving such instruction, boys and girls continued to show increased activity in both the word-decoding and word-forming areas of their brains. A study at Georgetown University showed that intensive intervention also helps adults with dyslexia. , December 4, 2007 Dyslexia marked by poor reading fluency—slow and choppy reading—may be caused by disorganized, meandering tracts of nerve fibers in the brain, according to researchers at Children's Hospital Boston and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. The study, using the latest imaging methods, gives researchers a glimpse of what may go wrong in the structure of some dyslexic readers' brains, making it difficult to integrate the information needed for rapid, “automatic” reading. , September 5, 2007 Using new software developed to investigate how the brains of dyslexic children are organized, University of Washington researchers have found that key areas for language and working memory involved in reading are connected differently in dyslexics than in children who are good readers and spellers. However, once the children with dyslexia received an intense and specialized instructional program, their patterns of functional brain connectivity normalized and were similar to those of good readers when deciding if sounds went with groups of letters in words. Excerpt from: “Dyslexic children use nearly five times the brain area” University of Washington press release UWNews.org, October 4, 1999 Dyslexic children use nearly five times the brain area as normal children while performing a simple language task, according to a new study by an interdisciplinary team of University of Washington researchers. The study shows, for the first time, that there are chemical differences in the brain function of dyslexic and non-dyslexic children. The research, published in the current issue of the , also provides new evidence that dyslexia is a brain-based disorder. This study, part of a wider UW effort to understand the basis of dyslexia and develop treatments for it, was funded by the National Institutes of Children Health and Human Development, a branch of the National Institutes of Health. Regardless of high or low overall scores on an IQ test, children with dyslexia show similar patterns of brain activity, according to researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health. The results call into question the discrepancy model – the current practice of classifying a child as dyslexic on the basis of a lag between reading ability and IQ score. , August 7, 2008 A new Carnegie Mellon University brain imaging study of dyslexic students shows that the brain can permanently rewire itself and overcome reading deficits, if students are given 100 hours of intensive remedial instruction. The study, published in the August issue of the journal , shows that the remedial instruction resulted in an increase in brain activity in several cortical regions associated with reading, and that gains became further solidified during the year following instruction. “This study demonstrates how remedial instruction can use the plasticity of the human brain to gain an educational improvement,” said neuroscientist Marcel Just, director of Carnegie Mellon's Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging (CCBI) and senior author of the study. “Focused instruction can help underperforming brain areas to increase their brain proficiency.” To read the entire article describing this study, click here. People with dyslexia vary in their ability to improve reading skills, but the brain basis for improvement remains largely unknown. These researchers performed a prospective, longitudinal study over 2.5 years on 25 children with and without dyslexia to discover whether initial behavioral or brain measures, including f MRI and DTI, could predict future long-term reading gains in dyslexia. This study showed that greater right prefrontal activation during a reading task that demanded phonological awareness, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus white-matter organization, significantly predicted future reading gains. The average dyslexic child is not diagnosed – and so does not begin to receive intensive reading help – until she is in 2nd or 3rd grade. But intervening in kindergarten, or earlier, is known to be effective. Studies in preschoolers have shown that glitches in certain prereading skills, such as rhyming or rapid object naming, are associated with later dyslexia. Nadine Gaab, a researcher at Children’s Hospital in Boston, hopes to pin down markers in younger children, perhaps even infants. A book containing all of the latest research on dyslexia written in layman's terms. Sally Shaywitz is one of the NIH's leading dyslexia researchers, is codirector of the Yale Center for the Study of Learning and Attention, and is well known for her f MRI brain scan studies as well as the Connecticut Longitudinal Study. Sally Shaywitz, author of , is an outstanding educator and speaker. Reid Lyon is the former branch chief of NICHD, the arm of the National Institutes of Health that has been conducting research into dyslexia for the past 25 years. Using brain scans, Gaab and her colleagues have found less gray matter in brain areas involved in mapping sounds in preschoolers, and neural deficits that prevent them from properly processing fast-changing sounds. In this superb book, you'll learn how: Susan Barton highly recommends this book to any parent, teacher, or other professional who interacts with children or adults with dyslexia. In this one-hour lecture, given at Harvard University on September 30, 2006, she explains why dyslexia and creativity are two sides of the same coin—and shares many case studies that prove it. Susan Barton was recently given a direct link to his research, as well as a link to a downloadable Power Point presentation Dr. For those who struggle with dyslexia, a reading problem that confounds 1 in every 5 Americans, the written word is a misfire in the mind. Indeed, a lifetime of reading problems can be traced to a distinctive flaw in the brain that makes the mind strain and stumble over written words. That telltale signature of dyslexia now can be detected reliably in brain scans of children as young as 7, researchers say. The scans showed that people with dyslexia have a much lower level of activity in areas at the back of the brain thought to be responsible for quickly matching words, sounds and meaning, compared to normal readers. “We know now that this disruption is not due simply to a lifetime of poor reading because we see it in children as young as age 7,” said Dr. Sally Shaywitz, director of the Yale University Center for Learning and Attention and co-author of the study published this month in the research journal . To read the National Institutes of Health's press release on this study, see NIH News Release: Children's Reading Disability Attributed to Brain Impairment. For additional background on brain research and reading, see the Q&A with Dr. Excerpt from: “55% of students who fail SATs have dyslexia or a learning disability” University of Hull Xtraordinary People publication, March 17, 2008 A new report released by Xtraordinary People on March 17, 2008, as part of their “No To Failure” project, has revealed the full extent of the hidden problem of dyslexia in classrooms around the country. In the screening phase of the study, a total of 1,341 pupils were screened in Year 3 and Year 7 in 20 schools across three different local authorities in England. This sample is reasonably representative of schools nationally, although slightly biased towards the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum. Overall, 55% of all pupils who failed to reach expected targets on the national Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) were found to be “at risk” for dyslexia, indicating that unidentified dyslexia is a major cause of educational failure that could be remedied, but which at present, is largely ignored. Xtraordinary People, a dyslexia charity supported by Sir Richard Branson, who is also dyslexic, is calling for the government to implement mandatory dyslexia awareness training for all teachers and to commit to providing dyslexia specialist training for one teacher in every school. Their No To Failure project is an empirical study to: “The link between dyslexia and academic failure has been made shockingly clear in our report. This level of failure is unacceptable and unnecessary because with a correct ‘diagnosis’ and support from trained specialists, dyslexic children can flourish. There is simply no need for these children to be slipping through the academic net,” said Kate Griggs, founder of Xtraordinary People. Because people with dyslexia are known to struggle with phonemes when reading, a US-based team of scientists at MIT wondered if they would also struggle hearing them in people’s voices. To investigate, the team grouped 30 people of similar age, education and IQ into two camps: those with and without dyslexia. The subjects went through a training period to learn to associate 10 different voices – half speaking English and half speaking Chinese – with 10 computer-generated avatars. Non-dyslexics outperformed people with dyslexia by 40% when listening to English. However, that advantage disappeared when the groups were listening to Chinese – because neither group had learned to hear Chinese phonemes. “Our results are the first to explicitly link impairment in reading ability to impairment in ecologically processing spoken language,” said researcher Tyler Perrachione. People with dyslexia often struggle with the ability to accurately decode and identify what they read. Although disrupted processing of speech sounds has been implicated in the underlying pathology of dyslexia, the basis for that disruption and how it interferes with reading has not been fully explained. Now, new research published by Cell Press in the December 22, 2011 issue of the journal finds that a specific abnormality in the processing of auditory signals accounts for the main symptoms of dyslexia. This new study shows that their left auditory cortex may be less responsive to modulations at specific frequencies that are optimal for analysis of speech sounds. New imaging research shows that the reduced brain activity associated with the onset of dyslexia develops before, not after, a child starts to read. Key parts of the brain’s rear left hemisphere critical to language processing do not undergo activity changes, the study suggests, which may be part of the cause. Guinevere Eden, director of the Center for the Study of Learning, a professor of pediatrics at Georgetown University, and past president of the International Dyslexia Association shared, “This means they have found a physiological signature for a child who is likely at risk for dyslexia, which will be of great help in doing what everyone really wants to do: identify and treat children with dyslexia as early as possible.” To read the entire article, click here. Although their unique brain architecture and “unusual wiring” make reading, writing, and spelling difficult, most people with dyslexia have gifts in areas controlled by the right hemisphere of the brain. The right side controls: A set of posters of famous people with dyslexia and/or ADD that teachers or parents can display on their walls. To view all of their posters about learning differences, click here. To view their poster of famous people with dyslexia, click here. No matter the scolding, the guilt, the prodding or the pushing, my mind does not enjoy reading. While others sprinted ahead, I lumbered forward, pausing between words and sentences as if they were high hurdles or steeple chase walls. Excerpt from: “I'm Not Ashamed of My Dyslexia” Doug Bursch The Moderate Voice.com, October 20, 2010 I don't enjoy reading. As I grew older, I began to tell people the story about how I used to be dyslexic, about how I grew out of my disability. I host a daily radio show and a few months back decided it would be nice to do a show on dyslexia, and share how I learned to read and “grow out” of dyslexia. In the middle of our interview, I proudly blurted out, “I'm dyslexic! He shares: I was 35 years old when I found out that I was dyslexic. Dyslexics lose their desire to read, or they never gain a desire, or they can't seem to maintain a desire to continue along the written page. It sounded right to me and it made me feel special, even though it was not true. I found a professor from Yale (Sally Shaywitz) who began to describe my life. ” I said those words as if I'd won a prize or at least found a place to stand without shame. My daughter, who is now 30, was being thrown out of the sixth grade at her private school. I met with the head of the school and he said: “She may not be up to what we're trying to accomplish." What he was really saying was that she didn't have the intelligence. I got really mad because I knew from talking to my daughter that she was smart, just as my father had known that I was smart when I was failing in school. By the time I got to college I had come to realize that I couldn't spell, no matter how hard I tried. We had her tested and all of the things that were going on with her were the same things that had been going on with me. So at the University of Oregon, I would sign up for extra courses. Then I would go around the first day of class and ask each professor: “What's your policy on misspelling? Let your English department worry about spelling,” I'd keep the course. If he said, “Three misspellings is a flunk,” I'd drop it. Steven Cannell is an avid spokesperson on dyslexia. In an inspiring video series, he explains what dyslexia is, recalls his experiences, and provides advice. Known for making America laugh on the Carol Burnett Show, Mc Hale's Navy, Dorf videos and more, Tim Conway traces his handiness with a hammer to a high school shop class, one of his favorite subjects because childhood dyslexia made it difficult for him to read. “People thought that I was kidding when I would read out loud in school, so they started laughing,” he recalls. Excerpt from: “The doctor is in—again: Patrick Dempsey of ‘Grey's Anatomy’ is being hailed as this TV season's comeback kid.” Michele Hatty “Dyslexia really hurt me during auditions. “For instance, the book Anderson Cooper is an Emmy Award winning American journalist, author, and the primary anchor of the CNN news show Anderson Cooper 360. There was a 10-year period where I had to memorize pages of dialogue and invest so much of my time and energy into every audition, going in knowing I wouldn't get it anyway,” Patrick Dempsey says with a trace of bitterness. Grey's creator, Shonda Rhimes, admits Dempsey's dyslexia threw her at first, particularly at the first few “table readings”—meetings when the cast gathers to read fresh scripts aloud. “I did not know about Patrick's dyslexia in the beginning," she says. “I actually thought that he didn't like the scripts from the way he approached the readings.” “When I found out, I completely understood his hesitation. Now that we all know, if he is struggling with a word, the other actors are quick to step up and help him out. Everyone is very respectful.” To read the entire interview, click here. From the Read Me website: Sara Entine, a talented independent filmmaker, has created a film that tells the story of her family, whose complicated relationships stem from misunderstandings due to unidentified dyslexia and AD/HD. It is the story of a mother, daughter, and granddaughter who long to feel seen, accepted, and loved for who they are. To watch a 10-minute trailer, free, on her website, click here. Excerpt from: “Dyslexic youth discovers talent as an actor” Jamie Portman When Luke Ford was diagnosed with dyslexia as a child in Australia, the last thing he expected was that it would launch him into an acting career and pave the way for a major role in a big Hollywood film like . He was told one of the best ways of dealing with dyslexia was to make his brain work in new areas. “So I went and tried to be a musician, but that didn't work,” he grins. Then he tried to be a painter and discovered he was pretty untalented in that area as well. “So then I thought, ‘All right, I'll do this drama class.’ They told me I was really good, and I got an A—but the next thing they did was to drop drama from my high school.” Ford's response to that was to quit school and try to become a professional actor. Excerpt from: “Tony Bennett says he's ‘never felt better’” Cassandra Szklarski jam.Bennett says coping with dyslexia, a learning disability that causes difficulty in reading and writing, has been an ongoing struggle throughout his impressive career. “I've always had a bit of dyslexia, so it's very hard for me to read proficiently,” says Bennett, known for a rich, natural vocal style that appears effortless. My eyes bounce, so it's difficult for me to follow musically that way. I have to do it instinctively and intuitively.” To read his story, click here. Excerpt from: “John Lennon: Imagine Dyslexia” Rafael Scarnati Learning Foundations.wordpress.com, December 13, 2010 Growing up, few people expected John Lennon to be any more successful than a pot scrubber or factory worker in Liverpool. Like many dyslexic children going to school, he was extremely bright yet grossly underestimated. He couldn't spell, even though he loved to read and write stories. He couldn't memorize the lyrics to other people's songs, but wrote amazingly creative lyrics himself. Except for his art classes, he got terrible grades. He was deemed a troublemaker, yet even when he dropped out of high school, his strong people skills and creativity moved his headmaster to make a special recommendation to get him into college. His is also a story that reveals both the challenges, and the gifts, of dyslexia. Excerpt from: “Seamless move to jazz music” Michelle Mc Donagh Irish Tom Mulcahy finds it difficult to put into words the impact that being diagnosed with dyslexia had on him after a lifetime of failing exams and feeling inadequate. He was an artist, a storyteller and a poet from a very early age. It was not until ten years ago, while he was in college pursing a degree in jazz performance, that he was finally diagnosed with dyslexia. After the nightmare of his school days, the diagnosis came as an enormous relief. My older siblings were clever in class, but I was regarded as being lazy. There was no help from the teachers in those days.” It is his passion for music, and jazz in particular, that kept him going through the many obstacles he faced. “I could not have accomplished what I have without having a passion for music and a strong commitment to my goals. As a student, I have had to embrace struggle as a necessary part of my growth.” “Understanding that I wasn't stupid, and that I just learned differently was a long journey that required a lot of reflection, perseverance and hard work. I learned that just the label of dyslexia is not enough to help a struggling learner.” He devised ingenious methods of using technologies such as slow-speed transcribers, digital dictaphones, computers, and i Pods to help him in his studies. He now advises others with dyslexia to do the same. In teaching children with dyslexia, Mulcahy believes the best approach is to focus on their strengths. Excerpt from: “Seasoned Chef Still Perfecting His Recipe for Success” Linda Broatch Great As the sous chef at a five-star hotel in Florida, Jeremy Emerson once faced a situation so terrifying that he briefly imagined abandoning the career he loved. He was asked, without warning, to read aloud during a meeting of the hotel's 30-plus department heads. And he did what many dyslexic adults do in such situations, no matter how confident they usually are—he panicked. Raised in England in the 1970's and 80's, Jeremy spent his elementary and secondary school years struggling to learn, not aware that he had dyslexia. Picking up on cues from the adults around him, he assumed that he must be lazy or stupid. Dyslexia runs in families, and both of Jeremy's brothers are dyslexic. Jeremy's older brother, Julian, had been “asked to leave school.” Yet he is now a software engineer for Intel. Jeremy has been the Executive Chef at San Francisco's Four Seasons Hotel since 2003, where he manages a staff of 50. Three decades after his Pompidou Center in Paris turned the architecture world upside down and brought him global fame, the British architect Richard Rogers has been named the 2007 winner of the Pritzker Prize, the profession's highest honor. The award—a $100,000 grant and a bronze medallion—is to be presented to Rogers on June 4, 2007 at the Banqueting House in London. Other high profile projects by Rogers include the sprawling Millennium Dome in Greenwich, England; the new terminal at Barajas International Airport in Madrid; and Terminal 5 at London's Heathrow Airport. Yet when his family moved to England in 1938, Richard struggled through the public school system. It was not until many years later that he received a diagnosis of dyslexia. “We didn't know about dyslexia.” To read the entire article, click here. (Japanese) Since his primary school days, Todo felt his efforts to write kanji were in vain, no matter how hard he tried. When he was in primary school, his mother taught him how to pronounce and guess the meaning of kanji by breaking them into their elements, much the way that foreign students study kanji. He still makes major mistakes when writing in kanji, and often confuses certain hiragana characters. “It's like all the textual information is coming out to me at once,” he explained. “It's so tiring to find my place.” Todo's memories of school life in Japan are bitter. In primary, his teachers did not accept students as they were, but instead, insisted on forcing the “different” students to become “normal.” Todo was labeled a difficult student and was treated as such. He became even more frustrated while at boarding school during his middle school years. “But my mother always accepted me the way I am,” he said. “If you can realize, even just once, that someone appreciates who you are, that feeling can last long, give you hope, and eventually the courage to try something.” His mother sent him to Britain for high school, where his relatives had once worked or studied. The testing also revealed his strengths, in particular, excellent spatial perception. He studied 3-D modeling and graphic design when he took his A-levels at Cambridge. In 2002, he matriculated to London's Architectural Association School of Architecture, where he graduated this summer. After his diagnosis, his mother, Eiko, established a nonprofit organization in Japan called EDGE (Extraordinary Dyslexic Gifted Eclectic) to help those with dyslexia improve their innate strengths further so they can live with self-confidence. Christie Craig is an award-winning writer, whose zany, humorous tales of romance, suspense, and life at its wackiest is one reason four of her books were accepted for publication on the very same day. During the interview, the reporter asked about her dyslexia: Q: How difficult was it for a kid with dyslexia to grow into a successful romance novelist? A: I seriously believe that I succeeded in this very hard business not in spite of my dyslexia, but in part, because of it. We pick up on people's emotions, body language, and tone of voice. Nothing came easy to me, and I didn't expect writing to be any different. So I could easily tap into human emotions, add my imagination, and—bingo. To learn more about Christie Craig and her books, go to The most needed tool to make it in this business I already had tucked inside—perseverance. Excerpt from: “Living with dyslexia” Debbie Macomber has written more than 100 books. She has sold more than 60 million books worldwide, and is a New York Times bestselling author. Not bad for someone who couldn't read until she was 11. “I was the only girl in the slow reading group,” says Debbie, on a visit to Dublin to publicize her latest book. “I am dyslexic, but they didn't have a word for that when I was a child,” says Debbie, who is from Washington State. “My teacher said, ‘Debbie is a nice girl, but she will never do well at school.’ And I didn't.” To read the rest of this story, click here. Excerpt from: “Schultz wins Pulitzer Prize” Deepti Hajela Democrat And Rochester, New York, native and poet Philip Schultz is among this year's winners of the Pulitzer Prizes. In a recent interview with Garrison Keillor, Schultz said he was a “terrible student” who suffered from dyslexia. He did not learn to read until he was in the fifth grade. Associated Press George Archer, the former Masters champion who died in September, kept a lifelong secret that his widow recently revealed in Golf for Women magazine. “Despite years of effort, he never learned to read beyond a rudimentary level. He never could write more than a few crude sentences,” Donna Archer wrote in the article, “The Secret They Shared”. “Eventually, he was able to get through an article on the sports page, and he learned to write his name for autographs,” she wrote, “But that was it.” “Over the years, George became incredibly adept at covering up his disability. But he was always afraid fans would want him to personalize an autograph, or that he'd have to read some prepared sentences on television.” When Duncan Goodhew won the 100 meter breaststroke gold medal at the Moscow Olympics in 1980, he knew his life would never be the same. He said, “For me, the whole process of swimming was to change the deck of cards, because dyslexia is incredibly corrosive to your spirit. “At the age of seven, I was asked to read out loud in class. I was fidgeting so much that I was literally tied to a chair and put in a corner with the dunce's hat on. “There was a lack of understanding then—and it's still happening. “Dyslexia is like being in a job you're not qualified for, and you don't speak the language. You're sitting there being told you are stupid all day, every day. “School gave me a fundamental understanding of what I was not good at. It gave me an acute desire to find something, a life preserver, and I found swimming.” , September 27, 2007 Olympic fencer Molly Sliney spent the day at Highlands School last Friday. I decided to believe that I was dumb and stupid.” To learn how she turned her life around by reading the entire story, click here. The athlete, coach and motivational speaker shared not only her fencing expertise, but also her struggle with dyslexia, telling students that she is proof that anyone can set goals and achieve them if they learn to believe in themselves. She returned to her seat, frustrated and stung by their taunts of “dumb” and “stupid.” “Boys and girls, when people say bad things about you,” she said, “you have two choices. Excerpt from: “Please look after the poor wee boy at the back” David Leafe uk Reclining in the comfort of an executive limousine and looking every inch the motor-racing legend and multimillionaire businessman that he is, Sir Jackie Stewart shared that his parents were baffled by his poor performance at school. Her many accomplishments in sports are impressive: Yet her proudest accomplishment was receiving her degree from Notre Dame. Her teacher gave her “the easiest word on the list” to spell. He remembers with horror one occasion when, as a little boy, he was asked to read in front of the class. Not bad for a kid who couldn't read until the age of 9. “All I could see as I looked at the book was a jungle: a whole clutter of words. My teacher, Miss Shaw, was telling me to get on with it, but I was blushing and couldn't swallow. “All around me, the other children were sniggering, or pretending to blow their noses to hide their laughter.” Describing school as “the most painful and humiliating period of my life,” he recalls his desire to leave school at the age of 15. “When you are being called thick, dumb and stupid, you end up leaning towards others who are like you, who won't humiliate and abuse you. Unfortunately, I ended up in a very bad crowd.” It was not until he was 42, and one of his sons was diagnosed with dyslexia, that he discovered, “I wasn't stupid after all. I felt like I had been saved from drowning.” To read the entire story, click here. Because I was teased in school, I became a master at “fake it until you make it.” In meetings, I'd pretend I could read the papers being passed out. , April 2, 2008 With a $2,000 loan from my mother, I have grown my Tempe-based firm, Terri's Consign & Design Furnishings, into the largest U. resale furniture retailer, with 16 stores and $36 million in annual sales. People ask if I attribute my success to overcoming dyslexia. I tell them that I have not, and never will, overcome dyslexia. Yes, I run a national company, but I still use a Franklin Talking Dictionary to try to spell fifth-grade vocabulary words. But at least I've shown my grade school teachers that it is not that I wasn't trying hard enough. To read the entire article, and learn about the many tools Terri uses to compensate, click here. , June 27, 2007 John Chambers leads one of the largest high tech firms in the world—networking gear maker Cisco Systems—but the West Virginia native could not keep up with classmates as an elementary student. Chambers suffered from dyslexia, crippling his reading abilities and damaging his confidence. “There's nothing harder on you than when people come around the classroom in first, second, and third grade and call on you. Your stomach tightens up; you know you'll mess up the reading,” he told IBD. Chambers says dyslexia is especially frustrating because more effort couldn't fix the problem. “My parents would sit and read with me in the evening, and it would get worse, not better,” he said. The process did more than help him read more easily. “Once you understand that you can overcome something that you doubted you would ever overcome, you gain more inner confidence. It helped me learn to deal with the challenges in life.” To read the entire story, click here. Excerpt from: “Barbara Corcoran: ‘Jersey girl’ trumped Trump with street smarts” Jay Mc Donald As a girl growing up in New Jersey, Barbara Corcoran would gaze across the Hudson River at the Manhattan skyline, not knowing that one day, she would reign as queen of New York residential real estate. Severe dyslexia earned her nothing more than straight D's in school and dire warnings from the nuns. “I was terrified that I would make a huge mistake.” The night before filming began, Jo was sick all night long. But what she could not accomplish in school, she made up for with a winning personality and a way with people. , May 28, 2010 Fearless on the shop floor and in the boardroom, fragrance tycoon Jo Malone found the transition from business guru to TV presenter terrifying. The next morning, she told the editor, “I can't do this. I can't read the script.” To find out what happened next, and how this high school dropout became a business guru, click here to read the entire article. , June 6, 2008 Evan Paul started playing video games to escape from the realities of middle school. Evan, who is dyslexic, recently completed his freshman year at the University of Arizona. He is founder and CEO of the online game-trading site, e Game Place.com, valued at $30 million. “Going through school, I felt like I was a stupid failure,” Evan shared. “Slowly but surely, because I did not give up, I eventually began to learn to read and things began to come together for me. It was by no means easy.” Evan would play video games when he came home from school, after a long day of bullying and struggling in class. “When I was younger, the only people who believed in me were myself and my family.” Last year, he started the Dyslexic Dream Foundation, and he donates 70 to 80 percent of his earnings to fund programs to help students overcome dyslexia. “The goal of the foundation is to raise awareness, and to educate teachers and schools,” he said. “I also set up scholarships because some of the great private schools cost more than some colleges.” To read the entire article, click here. Excerpt from: “Leadership guru addresses chamber” Reflector.com, October 6, 2010 Former CEO and president of Up With People, the largest non-profit in the world, Tommy Spaulding has become a guru on the topic of leadership. In a luncheon speech to promote his book, he shared how he won a prestigious Rotary Ambassadorial Scholarship to get an MBA—despite struggling with dyslexia in school. As an East Carolina University graduate with only a 2.0 GPA, he faced stiff competition for the scholarship from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton graduates with perfect academic records. His experience with his college roommate who was paralyzed in his freshman year, plus his rejection by 35 law schools, pulled at the heart strings of the committee. But it was his treatment of the bartender at the hotel where the scholarship committee held interviews that got him the award. The committee was deadlocked between Spaulding and a Harvard graduate when the chairman asked the bartender what he thought. Spaulding had spent hours talking to the bartender about his life and family, while the other applicants ignored him. “The committee heard about my heart and passion from the bartender, and they overlooked my grades,” he said. Spaulding's book, , December 6, 2007 It has long been known that dyslexics are drawn to running their own businesses, where they can get around their weaknesses in reading and writing and play on their strengths. But a new study of entrepreneurs in the United States suggests that dyslexia is much more common among small-business owners than even the experts had thought. The report, compiled by Julie Logan, a professor of entrepreneurship at the Cass Business School in London, found that more than a third of the entrepreneurs she surveyed identified themselves as dyslexic. “We found that dyslexics who succeed had overcome an awful lot in their lives by developing compensatory skills,” said Professor Logan. “If you tell your friends that you plan to start a business, you'll hear over and over, ‘It won't work. It can't be done.’ But dyslexics are extraordinarily creative about maneuvering their way around problems.” To read the entire article, click here. Excerpt from: “First Person: A Judge's Story” Jeffrey H. I couldn't write, spell, or read, or answer questions quickly. Gallet Everyone at school said that I was lazy or stupid or both. I didn't even know which hand to put over my heart when we recited the Pledge of Allegiance. My mother was a trained teacher, but even she did not understand dyslexia. But my parents never gave up on me, although it must have been a great disappointment to those two scholarly people that their first born could barely graduate from high school. They encouraged me to go to college and I did, graduating last in my class. I wanted to go to law school, and Brooklyn Law School took a chance on me. I was lucky to have loving parents, as well as a college professor and a law school roommate who supported me, encouraged me, tutored me, and refused to let me fall victim to my frustrations and give up. I wasn't diagnosed with a learning disability until I was 35. Having failed English courses in both high school and college, I finally learned how to write. But today, with 5 books and over 30 articles to my credit, I still suffer from an irrational fear that I am about to make a fool of myself every time I sit down to write. I agreed to write this article, after first refusing, because as a judge, almost every week I see a learning disabled child who, undiagnosed or untreated, is venting his or her frustrations in anti-social ways. If not for loving, caring, involved parents, my frustrations at not being able to keep up in class, and to some extent in the play yard, could have burst forth in the same self-destructive way. The schools and the courts have not met their responsibilities to LD children. They have not allocated the resources to do what must be done. To read the entire article, which includes Judge Gallet's attempts to improve the judicial system, click here. Excerpt from: “AP Interview: Malloy overcame dyslexia, physical struggles” Susan Haigh Boston.com, May 29, 2006 When Dan Malloy accepted the Democratic Party's nomination for governor at this month's state convention, he mentioned how proud his mother would have been had she lived to see that moment. As a child, Malloy struggled to read, calculate math problems, and even tie his shoes. He suffered from dyslexia at a time when the term “learning disabilities” was uncommon. As late as fourth grade, Malloy's teachers thought he was mentally retarded. He recalls how one teacher posted his failing spelling grades on the chalkboard. Malloy, 50, and mayor of Stamford, said “People from my childhood would not have predicted the level of success I've been able to accomplish.” To read the entire interview, click here. Maggie Aderin, who holds a Bachelors degree in Physics and a Ph. in Mechanical Engineering, has built telescopes, has helped create instruments to test missile warning systems and detect landmines, as well as satellites that monitor climate change. Yet her teachers dismissed her when she declared she wanted to study science because she had dyslexia. She shared: I was not considered very bright because I had dyslexia. When I first told my teachers I wanted to study science, they shook their heads and said I should consider something else. My father always said if you work hard, you can achieve so much. Although I suffered from dyslexia, I was quite logical, and I really loved science because I loved being hands on. When people realized I was good at science, I got lots of tuition and encouragement. In her first year at Imperial College in London, she was one of only two black people, and one of only ten women, in her class of 200. The work is hard, the pay is good, and it can be fun. Her company, Science Innovation Limited, has a program to get the public engaged in science, especially girls and minorities. She'll also appear in two of the BBC's upcoming six-part science series, “The Cosmos: A Beginner's Guide.” To read the rest of her story, click here. Excerpt from: “Obama picks alumnus for teaching excellence award” Cayla Gales State Hornet.com, December 8, 2010 Shortly after failing third grade, Mark Fairbank found out he had dyslexia. But that did not stop him from becoming an award-winning teacher. President Obama recently declared Fairbank one of the top science and math teachers in the country. He will receive the Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching. every single day, including Saturdays and Sundays, so I could make it through.” He received help from his mother, who read textbooks to him, and from his wife and best friend who typed his papers. Excerpt from: “Jack Horner: An Intellectual Autobiography” Jack Horner I suffered from a lack of confidence due to dyslexia. Thompson said, “but you also just explained me.” To read the entire article, click here. Even as a third grader, Fairbank knew he wanted to teach chemistry. So I went to community college for three years,” Fairbank said. I wasn't diagnosed until well after I had reached adulthood, had struggled through school being considered lazy, dumb, and perhaps even retarded, and had flunked out of college seven times. Excerpt from: “Award May Be a Big Brake for Clever Edward” Joseph Watts This Is uk, October 1, 2007 He may be too young to drive, but that has not stopped Edward Wilson from winning a top prize for a road-safety invention. Most people expected I'd wind up working at a service station, or if I was really lucky, I might get to drive a truck at my father's gravel plant. At home, there was usually a microscope on the dinner table. The 16-year-old's innovative brake light system shows how quickly a car is slowing, and it won Edward the Design and Innovation Trophy at the 2007 Young Engineer for Britain awards. Kindergarten through eighth grade was extremely difficult for me because my progress in reading, writing, and mathematics was excruciatingly slow. he researched human temperature regulation at the National Institutes of Health. Edward's device, called Slow Safe, warns a driver that the car ahead of them is slowing without the person in the car in front putting their foot on the brake. I would never read out loud in class, even if the teachers threatened to give me failing grades. This patent-pending invention should reduce accidents and traffic jams. The joke was that I only carried schoolbooks to ballast my lanky body against the strong winds of Montana. Instead of writing things down, he kept information in his head. Edward will be giving presentations to car manufacturers for the next few months, trying to persuade them to use Slow Safe. an extraordinarily bad speller and have remained so until this day. Eventually, I managed to graduate from high school, but just barely, having received Ds in all required classes, including English, in which my grade was a D minus, minus, minus. in which I excelled: science projects.” Jack Horner became one of the most well known paleontologists in the world. His mother, Serena Wilson, shared that her son's achievement was all the more impressive because he also had to deal with dyslexia. He even wrote his own computer program, and no one taught him how to do that. “At times, his dyslexia made things hard, but he persevered.” To read the entire article, click here. where nobody understood the meaning of learning disorder. Writing and spelling were always terribly difficult for me. Agatha Christie I was, on the whole, considerably discouraged by my school days. The teacher told me that this was essentially an F, but that he never wanted to see me again. He has discovered the most dinosaur eggs, the first dinosaur embryos, and three species of dinosaurs. In the West Indies, I was constantly being physically abused because the whipping of students was permitted. Cannell, screenwriter, producer, & director I never read in school. Almost everything I learned, I had to learn by listening. It was not pleasant to feel oneself so completely outclassed and left behind at the beginning of the race. Although he never graduated from college, Jack received the Mac Arthur Foundation Award (called the “Genius Award”), several honorary doctorate degrees, and served as technical advisor for all of the Jurassic Park films. Excerpt from: “Billionaire inventor James Sorenson dies at 86” Diana Rosenthal CNNMoney.com, January 22, 2008 James Sorenson, inventor of the computerized heart monitor and of disposable paper surgical masks, died on Sunday. Harry Belafonte Since I was the stupidest kid in my class, it never occurred to me to try and be perfect, so I've always been happy as a writer just to entertain myself. I got really bad grades—D's and F's and C's in some classes, and A's and B's in other classes. My report cards always said that I was not living up to my potential. Winston Churchill I had to train myself to focus my attention. Although he was the richest man in Utah when he died, with a fortune estimated at $4.5 billion, he struggled through the Great Depression, and dyslexia, to emerge as one of the century's great inventors. Excerpt from: “Professor transcended dyslexia for a life of the mind” Stephanie Hayes Tampa Bay.com, November 3, 2007 He was the kid with the butterfly net. I became very visual and learned how to create mental images in order to comprehend what I read. Tom Cruise You should prefer a good scientist without literary abilities than a literate one without scientific skills. my father thought I was stupid, and I almost decided I must be a dunce. Thomas Edison He told me that his teachers reported that … he was mentally slow, unsociable, and adrift forever in his foolish dreams. Hans Albert Einstein, on his father, Albert Einstein Having made a strenuous effort to understand the symbols he could make nothing of, he wept giant tears… Caroline Commanville, on her uncle, Gustave Flaubert Kids made fun of me because I was dark skinned, had a wide nose, and was dyslexic. Even as an actor, it took me a long time to realize why words and letters got jumbled in my mind and came out differently. Danny Glover, actor I barely made it through school. But I like to find things that nobody else has found, like a dinosaur egg that has an embryo inside. Horner, American paleontologist I am, myself, a very poor visualizer and find that I can seldom call to mind even a single letter of the alphabet in purely retinal terms. Well, there are 36 of them in the world, and I found 35. I must trace the letter by running my mental eye over its contour in order that the image of it shall leave any distinctness at all. William James, psychologist and philosopher I just barely got through school. The problem was a learning disability, at a time when there was nowhere to get help. My solution back then was to read classic comic books because I could figure them out from the context of the pictures. Charles Schwabb My problem was reading very slowly. As long as you're going to read, just keep at it.” We didn't know about learning disabilities back then. Bruce Jenner, Olympic gold medalist The looks, the stares, the giggles … Nelson Rockefeller When I had dyslexia, they didn't diagnose it as that. I could tell you a lot of horror stories about what you feel like on the inside. Roger Wilkins, Head of the Pulitzer Prize Board As a child, I was called stupid and lazy. My parents had no idea that I had a learning disability. I wanted to show everybody that I could do better and also that I could read. although he was bright and intelligent and bursting with energy, he was unable to read and write. Henry Winkler My father was an angry and impatient teacher and flung the reading book at my head. Patton's wife corrected his spelling, his punctuation, and his grammar. William Butler Yeats Willie was sent to lessons in spelling and grammar, but he never learned to spell. Biographer Martin Blumenson on General George Patton I was one of the “puzzle children” myself—a dyslexic … To the end of his life he produced highly idiosyncratic versions of words. Norman Jeffares on William Butler Yeats I hated school.… One of the reasons was a learning disability, dyslexia, which no one understood at the time. Loretta Young Excerpt from: “Letter: Septuagenarian triumphs over dyslexia thanks to tutor” Edward Hall TCPalm.com, December 23, 2007 Recently, I read a book for the first time. But for a man in his 70's, this meant the world to me. My wife told me I had actually given her a sympathy card. Historically, students with dyslexia have been ignored, labeled “dumb,” put in the back of the room and left alone. The reality is that those with dyslexia are bright and eager to learn. Excerpt from: “Overcoming obstacles: Dyslexia doesn't hold down FVTC grad” Krista B. I spent decades living in shame and fear of being “found out.” I refused countless promotions just so my co-workers would not learn I could not read. A volunteer tutor in an adult literacy program taught Mr. Ledbetter The Northwestern.com, December 10, 2006 Tina Krueger, 45, spent nearly 20 years working in the Osh Kosh B'Gosh factory before her department shut down in 2004. I look at them now and wonder, ‘What was I trying to say? There are so many people out there willing to help. Left without a job, she made the decision to return to school. ’” It took a leap of faith for her to enroll in FVTC. You are not doing it alone.” To read the entire article, click here. But one hurdle stood in her way—Krueger has dyslexia. “It was a difficult two years,” admitted Kruger, who attended full-time. Excerpt from: “How I hid not being able to read or write” Linda Worden uk, July 30, 2008 Thinking back to my school days, all I can remember is the pain as I struggled from a young age. Krueger says she has moderate to severe dyslexia which made schooling difficult for as long as she can remember. On Saturday, she graduated with an AA degree in Marketing and a 3.9 grade point average. Classes were so big that I would just sit quietly at the back, or find any excuse not to be there at all. My reports were full of the usual lines: “Linda could do better … There were times I would miss something important—appointments, bills—because I didn't dare to open the mail. Linda's lazy,” when, in fact, I just kept quiet so no one would notice that I could not do the work. Yet I could sell myself, coming across as full of confidence, impressing people at face value. What I lost through not being able to read and write, I gained in other ways. People always commented on my smile and cheerful personality. I have done all sorts of jobs—including factory work and restaurant work—but the minute I received any sort of promotion that would have revealed my weaknesses, I'd leave. Excerpt from: “Kersten: Defeating dyslexia at home” Katherine Kerston Star Tribune.com, August 18, 2005 For years I dreaded this time of year: back-to-school time. For my elementary-school-aged daughter, it meant another year of teasing, frustration, and a constant sense of defeat. I first realized that something was wrong during her kindergarten year. Try as we might, with songs, games and repetition, she couldn't learn the alphabet. After first grade, my husband and I had her tested. She scored between the fifth and tenth percentiles in reading—as if she had never been to school. In the classroom and on the playground, my daughter endured misery. Often, her teachers didn't comprehend the nature of her difficulties, or thought she wasn't trying. “Learning to read at school was like trying to run through mud,” she says now. “You struggle so hard, but you never seem to get anywhere.” To read the entire article, click here. Excerpt of an article Imogen Stubbs, a parent, published by an Australian newspaper. For many dyslexic children, the experience of reading and writing is like driving in a foreign country. Everything seems to be on the wrong side, going in the wrong direction. It requires exhausting concentration—and you experience a sense of tension, fear and total isolation as everyone roars past, hooting and looking at you as if you were an idiot. When you finally reach your destination, after many wrong turns and a circuitous route that has taken an insanely long time, you then have no desire ever to get behind the wheel again. You could excel behind the wheel, if only you were on familiar roads. Meanwhile, your hosts have gone off to a party without you. Her child wrote: when i do riting and pariigrafs my brayn is uncunferdble and herts and i get the writ word but wen it travls down my arm it disapeeurs befour it coms out of my hand and sumtymes im chrying. Excerpt from: “A Senior Citizen Reflects on Her Lifelong Struggle With Dyslexia” Janet Bell Great In June 1928, my mother enrolled me in first grade. I was going to learn wonderful things and have lots of fun. In the years that followed, I found school was full of fear and frustration. I quickly was labeled “the dumb kid.” Every day in school, I hid behind the child in front of me so the teacher wouldn't call on me. Writing the alphabet was easy, but reading it was a problem. This played havoc with my spelling, and I worked hard to memorize words for weekly spelling tests. I studied every night, but my father would get frustrated with me. He'd bang his fist on the table and say something like, “Use your head! ” In spite of all this, I managed to receive a high school diploma. But my belief that I was dumb overshadowed my entire adult life. Three years ago, at the suggestion of a co-worker, I purchased a book on dyslexia. As I read the first few pages, I was in shock and tears. My immediate and joyful reaction was, “Dear Blessed God, I am not dumb. At last I knew there was a reason for my being different—different, not dumb. Today a teacher or dyslexia testing specialist can say to parents, “Your daughter has dyslexia, and we can help her.” How I wish my parents could have heard those words. When Mackenzie Meyer was identified with dyslexia, she was told she would not be able to reach her goal of becoming a veterinarian. As a result, she has pursued her dream in full force and is a shining example for any LD student who has been told to lower her expectations. Here is the beginning of her essay: President Obama has a nation of educators looking for “it.” Steve Jobs of Apple Computer wants to unleash “it.” Superpower countries like the US, China and India are in the race of their lives for “it.” As for me … well, I already have “it.” Actually, I was born with “it.” I was born with the gift to create, to invent new ways of doing and being. I am a person who learns differently and therefore, by default, sees differently and will help this planet in ways it has yet to see. Oh, yeah, I know it sounds like I have it totally together and have long since figured out that having a learning disability is a gift. Just as it is with anybody who has a disability, you have two choices: you can take the easy way out and accept that you will have a life with limits, or decide that you are going to fight for the life you want to have and are meant to have. To read the rest of this inspiring essay, click here. Source: “The Gift of Learning Differently” Mackenzie Meyer Application essay for the Anne Ford and Allegra Ford Scholarship Published April 28, 2010 Excerpt from: “College Student with Learning Disabilities Designs His Own Future” Linda Broatch Great Schools.org, March 11, 2005 Identified with dyslexia in sixth grade, Charles Rachal always struggled in school. Even now, with college graduation in sight, he seems a little surprised at what he has accomplished. During middle school and high school, it seemed that no matter how hard he worked, he rarely made good grades—and regularly made bad ones. Fortunately, his parents didn't pressure him about his grades, except when they thought he hadn't given a class his best effort. “It took me 15 years to figure out how to do well in school. When you have a disability, you have to use your strengths to defeat it.” To read the entire article and his advice to parents of kids with learning and attention problems, click here. Excerpt from: “Spinning in My Head” Henry Sherwin Great Schools.org, April 13, 2001 What's good and smart about me? I have a good memory and can remember songs and what people say in movies. Animals love me because I'm not afraid, and they sense this. I'm good at playing the clarinet and the saxophone. And I can make anyone laugh with my voices and faces. My mother and teachers call it a learning disability. This means I can't learn things as fast as other kids, and languages are harder. It's tough when I see others succeeding, and I can't do it as easily. The “Good Zone” is when things fall into place and click for me. Here are some things that help me get into the “Good Zone.” To read the rest of Henry's article, click here. Excerpt from: “The Path to Success: Pearls of Wisdom from Anne Ford Scholarship Applicants” Noreen Byren Here is one excerpt of an Anne Ford Scholarship application: I am a very determined person, and I don't like being told that I have limits on what I can do with my life. Fact: Dyslexia is one of the most researched and documented conditions that will impact children. I am the kind of person who believes that one person can change the world and make it a better place, and that you can do anything you set your mind to. I no longer want to do this just to prove to everyone who ever doubted me that they were wrong. And when I do, I will be able to help children who went through the same thing I did. Over 30 years of independent, scientific, replicated, published research exists on dyslexia—much of it done through the National Institutes of Health, funded by taxpayer dollars. Even more research is contained in the books and websites on our More Info page. For years, my main goal was to graduate high school, go to college, and then go back to Dr. Take a look at the Dyslexia Fact Sheet published by the International Dyslexia Association. Some have it only mildly, some have it moderately, some have it severely, and some have it profoundly. Fact: According to the NIH researchers, in the United States, dyslexia impacts 20% of our population. Very few children with dyslexia are in the special education system. Only 1 in 10 will be eligible for an IEP (when tested in second or third grade) under the category of Learning Disability (LD). That means 9 out of 10 “fall through the cracks.” Although the parents and the teacher know there's something different about the child, the child does not qualify for special education services, and most will no longer get help from the reading specialist after first or second grade. It is the most common reason a child will struggle first with spelling, then with written expression, and eventually “hit the wall” in reading development by third grade. It seems when boys in first, second, or third grade can't do classroom assignments or homework, they get frustrated and act out their frustration. Fact: Although more boys are sent for testing than girls, research shows that dyslexia impacts just as many girls as boys. Parents and teachers notice that behavior and then try to figure out why they are behaving that way—by sending them for testing. But often, when girls in first, second, or third grade can't do the work, they tend to get quiet, move to the back of the room, and try to become invisible. Often, their dyslexia is not discovered until high school or even college. That is why vision therapy does not work for this population. Yes, they reverse their b's and their d's and say “was” for “saw.” But that's caused by their lifelong confusion over left versus right and by their difficulty reading by sounding out. That means waiting—due to a false hope that it will disappear as the child gets older—is the worst thing you can do. The child will only get further and further behind—unless that child gets the right type of intervention or tutoring. Fact: People with dyslexia do not see things backwards. All the experts agree: Waiting is the worst thing you can do. There are effective research-based methods that will bring their reading, spelling, and writing skills up to—and beyond—grade level. Although it is never too late to greatly improve their skills, early intervention is the best way to prevent or minimize the damage to their self-esteem, their emotional distress, and their fear of going to school. Fact: Most children will reverse some of their letters and some of their numbers while they are learning. Up to a certain point, that is considered perfectly normal. But those reversals should be gone after two years of handwriting instruction and practice. But letter or number reversals that continue after two years of handwriting instruction and practice are a classic warning sign of dyslexia. If a child truly has dyslexia, however, the child will have many of the other classic warning signs of dyslexia. Fact: Professionals with in-depth training can accurately diagnose dyslexia as early as age 5. Doctors have no training in how to test for reading, spelling, and writing problems. To learn who should—and who should not—test for dyslexia, the types of tests that are given, and the types of errors and difficulties that a tester is looking for, click here. And there is no medical solution (no pill or operation) for those types of academic struggles. That is also why medical insurance does not cover anything having to do with dyslexia. The International Dyslexia Association publishes a Fact Sheet on Testing. That means you can have a very high IQ and be dyslexic, you can have an average IQ and be dyslexic, and you can have low IQ and be dyslexic. Many people with dyslexia are very bright and accomplish amazing things as adults. Take a look at our list of over 200 famous dyslexics. Fact: Everyone with dyslexia can read—up to a point. But they will “hit the wall” in reading development by third grade, if not sooner. When reading, they have great difficulty sounding out an unknown word—despite being taught phonics. They will often read a word fine on one page, but not recognize the very same word on the next page. But it is spelling that separates kids with dyslexia from kids who struggle with reading for some other reason. If the child and their parents spend hours and hours studying the spelling list, the child may be able to learn the list of 20 spelling words long enough to do “okay” on Friday's test. But they cannot retain those spelling words from one week to the next. They also cannot spell when writing sentences or paragraphs—not even the high frequency words such as “because,” “friend,” or “does.” That's why extreme difficulty with spelling is considered a classic warning sign of dyslexia—and why the International Dyslexia Association publishes a Fact Sheet on Spelling. Fact: Independent, scientific, replicated research on reading development shows just the opposite. It shows that if a child is struggling with reading, writing, and spelling in mid-first grade, that child has better than 90% odds of still struggling with those skills in eighth grade and on into adulthood if someone doesn't step in and do something. That means less than 10% of the time will a child outgrow those struggles. That also means waiting is the worst thing you can do. The child is only going to get further and further behind. Fact: Dyslexia is not the only reason a child will struggle with reading, but it is the most common reason. Phonics is not the answer for a child with dyslexia. How can you tell whether dyslexia is the cause of the child's reading struggles? The teacher can use the best phonics program in the world, but it will not prevent a child with dyslexia from “hitting the wall” by third grade. That's why these organizations are against retention. Most parents already know that phonics does not help. That's why a classic warning sign of dyslexia is a child who can not sound out an unknown word—despite being taught phonics. “Through many years of research, the practice of retaining children has been shown to be ineffective in meeting the needs of children who are academically delayed.” “Social promotion and grade retention are mechanical responses to an educational problem. Most parent have already tried “Hooked on Phonics”—and it did not improve their child's reading or spelling. The scandal is how little attention they give to preventing failure in the first place.” “Neither social promotion nor retention is appropriate for students who do not meet high academic standards.” “The weight of the evidence of literally hundreds of studies shows that retaining children does NOT produce higher achievement.” For links to these studies, click here. Fact: Reading out loud will not teach a dyslexic child how to sound out unknown words. They will continue to try to memorize the shape of a word, and use picture clues or context clues to guess at the words. If a child cannot easily and accurately sound out unknown words, especially multi-syllable words, by the time the child starts third grade, that child will “hit the wall” in reading development. Reading out loud for 20 minutes a day will not teach that missing skill—reading by sounding out, which is also called “decoding” or “word attack.” The inability to decode is caused by weak phonemic awareness skills. Part of the research-based definition of dyslexia is a child who lacks age appropriate phonemic awareness skills. Fact: People with dyslexia can become excellent readers, decent spellers, and good writers if they receive the right type of intervention or tutoring. Independent, scientific, replicated research recommends an Orton-Gillingham based system as the most effective way to improve the reading, writing, and spelling skills of people with dyslexia. That's why the International Dyslexia Association publishes two fact sheets on Orton-Gillingham. There are seven well-known Orton-Gillingham based systems. The Barton Reading & Spelling System is one of the best. Fact: If students with dyslexia do not receive the right type of tutoring and classroom accommodations, they often struggle in school—despite being bright, motivated, and spending hours on homework assignments. Even though he sometimes fails, he will not give up on his education. He wrote this open letter to educators: You have questioned my abilities and my need for help. You have no concept of the effort and time it takes for me to achieve my accomplishments because you have never allowed me what I need to show my full potential. I could give up and walk away from getting an education, but I am not a quitter. You can assist me in getting an education by making accommodations that have been proven to help me, or you can allow me to fail and hope I will go away. 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Dyslexia is not the result of lack of motivation, sensory impairment, inadequate instructional or environmental opportunities, or other limiting conditions, but may occur together with these conditions. Although dyslexia is lifelong, individuals with dyslexia frequently respond successfully to timely and appropriate intervention. Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition, and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. “Learning Disability” is not a specific term; it is a category containing many specific disabilities, all of which cause learning to be difficult. The following definition of “learning disability” is used for legislative, financial, and educational purposes only. It is not a definition of dyslexia, which is one specific learning disability. The term “learning disability” means a disorder in one or more of the basic processes involved in understanding spoken or written language. It may show up as a problem in listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, or spelling or in a person's ability to do math, despite at least average intelligence. The term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or physical handicaps, or mental retardation, or emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. No two people with dyslexia are exactly alike because dyslexia ranges from mild to moderate to severe to profound. Therefore, someone with dyslexia may not have every single symptom listed below. Professional testers look for a “constellation” or cluster of symptoms in the following areas. If someone struggles with spelling, is a slow reader who has a difficult time sounding out unknown words, and has difficulty getting their great thoughts down on paper in acceptable form, and that person has 3 or more of these classic warning signs, it is worth getting that person tested for dyslexia. These problems are unexpected when compared to the person's proven abilities in other areas. One is also available on the warning signs of ADD/ADHD. Just click here, then type in your home or work mailing address. If three or more of these warning signs exist, especially if there is dyslexia or ADD/ADHD in the family tree, the child should be tested for dyslexia when the child becomes five years old. Also, phonemic awareness games and other reading readiness activities should be done daily during the preschool years. Learning any task that has a series of steps which must be completed in a specific order can be difficult. That's because you must memorize the sequence of steps, and often, there is no logic in the sequence. These tasks are usually challenging for people with dyslexia: Memorizing non-meaningful facts (facts that are not personally interesting and personally relevant) is extremely difficult for most dyslexic children and adults. In school, this leads to difficulty learning: People with dyslexia have an extremely difficult time organizing their belongings. They tend to pile things rather than to organize them and put them away. It is almost as though if they can't see the item (if it is behind a door or in a drawer), they will forget where it is. So they have extremely messy bedrooms, lockers, desks, backpacks, purses, offices, and garages. Their three-dimensional visualization skills help them “see” math concepts more quickly and clearly than non-dyslexic people. Unfortunately, difficulties in directionality, rote memorization, reading, and sequencing can make the following math tasks so difficult that their math gifts are never discovered. A small percentage (3% to 8%) of people with dyslexia also have light sensitivity (sometimes called scotopic sensitivity). These people have a hard time seeing small black print on white paper. The print seems to shimmer or move; some see the rivers of white more strongly than the black words. These people tend to dislike fluorescent lighting, and often “shade” the page with their hand or head when they read. Colored plastic overlays and/or colored lenses can eliminate the harsh black print against white paper contrast, and may make letters stand still for the first time in someone's life. However, the plastic overlays or colored lenses will not “cure” dyslexia, nor will they teach a dyslexic person how to read. NIH research has repeatedly demonstrated that lack of phonemic awareness is the root cause of reading failure. Phonemes are the smallest unit of spoken language, not written language. Children who lack phonemic awareness are unable to distinguish or manipulate sounds within spoken words or syllables. They would be unable to do the following tasks: If a child lacks phonemic awareness, they will have difficulty learning the relationship between letters and the sounds they represent in words, as well as applying those letter/sound correspondences to help them “sound out” unknown words. So children who perform poorly on phonemic awareness tasks via oral language in kindergarten are very likely to experience difficulties acquiring the early word reading skills that provide the foundation for growth of reading ability throughout elementary school. Phonemic awareness skills can and must be directly and explicitly taught to children who lack this awareness. Otherwise, the phonics instruction will not make sense to the dyslexic child. Phonological processing refers to understanding of sounds used in our language, ranging from big chunks of sound (words), to smaller chunks (syllables) and eventually to phonemic awareness (every sound within a syllable). Both phonemic awareness and phonological processing are auditory processing skills. Therefore, they can (and should) be taught before letters are introduced. The goal of teaching phonics is to link the individual sounds to letters, and to make that process fluent and automatic, for both reading and spelling. In other words, phonics teaches students symbol-to-sound and sound-to-symbol. But for phonics to work, a student must first have solid phonological processing and phonemic awareness. To see how these different items are taught, take a look at our How to Get Help page. Researchers have determined that a gene on the short arm of chromosome #6 is responsible for dyslexia. That gene is dominant, making dyslexia highly heritable. Dyslexia results from a neurological difference; that is, a brain difference. People with dyslexia have a larger right hemisphere in their brains than those of normal readers. That may be one reason people with dyslexia often have significant strengths in areas controlled by the right side of the brain, such as: In addition to unique brain architecture, people with dyslexia have unusual “wiring.” Neurons are found in unusual places in the brain, and they are not as neatly ordered as in non-dyslexic brains. In addition to unique brain architecture and unusual wiring, f/MRI studies have shown that people with dyslexia do not use the same part of their brain when reading as other people. Regular readers consistently use the same part of their brain when they read. People with dyslexia do not use that part of their brain, and there appears to be no consistent part used among dyslexic readers. It is therefore assumed that people with dyslexia are not using the most efficient part of their brain when they read. A different part of their brain has taken over that function. Excerpt from “Dissecting Dyslexia” Reading Children who cannot read fluently or spell accurately are often thought to lack intelligence or motivation. But in most cases, they are neither stupid nor lazy. They have dyslexia, which makes it difficult for them to understand written language despite having a normal—or higher than normal—IQ. Recent studies suggest that their reading difficulties are caused by identifiable genetic variations that create “faulty wiring” in certain areas of the brain. Luckily, most of our brain development occurs after we are born, when we interact with our environment. This means that the right teaching techniques can actually re-train the brain, especially when used early. , October 2006 This scholarly research article expands on the following: All four genes thus far linked to dyslexia impact brain development. Comparable abnormalities induced in young rodent brains cause auditory deficits, underscoring the potential relevance of these brain changes to dyslexia. Our perspective on dyslexia is that some of the brain changes cause phonological processing abnormalities as well as auditory processing abnormalities. Thus, we propose a pathway between a genetic effect, developmental brain changes, and perceptual deficits associated with dyslexia. , November 2, 2005 One year after scientists discovered a gene whose flaw contributes to dyslexia, two more such genes have been identified. The findings, described yesterday in Salt Lake City at a meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics, support the idea that many people deemed simply lazy or stupid, because of their severe reading problems, may instead have a genetic disorder that interfered with the wiring of their brains before birth. , December 2008 Dyslexia (reading disability) is a complex trait determined in large part by genetic factors. Association studies and translocation breakpoint analyses have proposed several genes as susceptibility candidates at some of the quantitative trait loci linked to dyslexia: DYX1C1 on chromosome 15, KIAA0319 and DCDC2 on chromosome 6, ROBO1 on chromosome 3, and MRPL19 and C20RF3 on chromosome 2. The results of this study both support the role of KIAA0319 in the development of dyslexia and and suggest that this gene influence reading ability in the general population. Moreover, the data implicate the three-SNP haplotype and its tagging SNP rs2143340 as genetic risk factors for poor reading performance. This research article is extremely technical but is a “must read” for those who want to understand the latest in genetic research. Scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered that a gene linked to dyslexia has a surprising biological function: it controls cilia, the antenna-like projections that cells use to communicate. Dyslelxia is largely hereditary and linked to a number of genes. One of these genes, DCDC2, is involved in regulating the signaling of cilia in brain neurons. , April 18, 2008 A team of Finnish and American geneticists have found that, for some people at least, music is in their genes. In what the researchers called the first study of its kind, they found specific regions of chromosomes that were connected to musical ability. The chromosomal regions that were found to be connected to music are known to be involved in the migration of neurons during development. And the study also found that the musical DNA overlapped with a region associated with dyslexia. Dyslexia exists in every country, even countries in which the written language is not phonetic. Genetic studies in western populations have suggested that DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for dyslexia. This study of 393 Chinese children determined that the very same gene is responsible for dyslexia in Chinese children. And those children have difficulty with rapid naming, phonological memory, and orthographic skills – just as dyslexic children in western countries do. In the early 1980's, the United States Congress mandated the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to research learning disabilities and answer 7 specific questions. After conducting longitudinal research plus numerous studies on genetics, interventions, and brain function, we now have a great deal of independent, scientific, replicated, published research on dyslexia. This section shares the research results released by the National Institutes of Health from 1994 to the present, as well as from dyslexia researchers in several others countries. The National Institutes of Health conducted a longitudinal study by tracking 5,000 children at random from all over the country starting when they were 4 years old until they graduated from high school. The researchers had no idea which children would develop reading difficulties and which ones would not. There were many theories at that time as to what caused reading difficulties, and which tests best predicted reading failure. The researchers tested these children 3 times a year for 14 years using a variety of tests that would either support or disprove the competing theories. But the researchers did NOT provide any type of training or intervention. From that research, they were able to determine which tests are most predictive of reading failure, at what age we can test children, and whether children outgrow their reading difficulties. This study also spawned numerous other NIH research projects. The results of these studies were released in 1994. A growing body of evidence supports her prediction and suggests that many of these children do not “outgrow” these problems, and that “simple” delays in communication may, in fact, be stable predictors of later learning disabilities. One set of researchers followed a group of children from ages 2 to 6. The children were identified at age 2 as “late talkers”. Although the majority outgrew their oral language delay by age 4, they demonstrated academic delays at ages 5 and 6. Another set of researchers found that the oral language disorders decreased over time, giving the impression of “recovery” by age 5. However, the majority of those children experienced reading disabilities by grade 2. , August 22, 2008 Atypical characteristics of children's linguistic development are early signs of the risk of dyslexia, and new research points to preventive exercises as an effective means to tackle the challenges children face when learning to read. The results achieved at the Centre of Excellence in Learning and Motivation Research were presented at Finland's Academy of Science breakfast on 21 August. Headed by Professor Lyytinen at the University of Jyvaskyla, the study compared 107 children with a dyslexic parent to a control group of children without a hereditary predisposition to dyslexia. The researchers followed the children from birth through school age. “Half of the children whose parents had difficulties in reading and writing found learning to read more challenging than children in the control group. The atypical characteristics of these children's linguistic development indicated the risk at a very early age,” says Lyytinen. According to Lyytinen, the predictors of reading and writing difficulties are evident primarily in two contexts: a delayed ability to perceive and mentally process the subtleties of a person's voice, and a sluggishness in naming familiar, visually presented objects. Significant difficulty with spelling, when writing sentences and stories, is the most obvious warning sign of dyslexia. That's why spelling is mentioned in the research-based definition of dyslexia used by the International Dyslexia Association and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), which is: Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. Poor spelling when writing essays and stories is a huge red flag of dyslexia. As part of Reading Rocket’s Meet The Experts series, Dr. Louisa Moats shares how reading problems show up first in spelling. Times uk, October 25, 2008 In the past, poor spelling was attributed to all manner of things, from bad schooling to a lack of moral fiber. A difficulty with spelling could be rooted in your genes and in the way your brain is wired. She then explains the importance of reading and spelling nonsense words. The International Dyslexia Association has recently released a 4-page fact sheet on Spelling (“Just the Facts…Spelling”), which states that people with dyslexia have “conspicuous problems” with spelling and writing. These findings stem from research into the language disorder dyslexia, but they are proving important for the wider population. The fact sheet quotes the research and explains how spelling needs to be taught. Produced by the International Dyslexia Association, posted on their website in 2008 Tony Monaco, a scientist at the Wellcome Centre Trust for Human Genetics, Oxford University, believes that our ability to spell lies partly in our DNA. In his study, his lab tracked the development of 6,000 children born in the early Nineties. Previous studies highlighted a particular gene that might affect reading ability, KIAA0319. We all carry it, but he found that 15 percent of the population have a slightly different version than normal. According to Professor Monaco, the normal version of the gene helps to guide brain cells into the cortex when a child is developing in the womb. When the gene is different, however, it is unable to properly fulfill its function; brain cells get lost on the journey and end up in the wrong place. “This may disrupt the processing of information,” he says. Excerpt from: “Brain Images Show Individual Dyslexic Children Respond To Spelling Treatment” Medical News Today.com, February 15, 2006 Brain images of children with dyslexia taken before they received spelling instruction show that they have different patterns of neural activity than do good spellers when doing language tasks related to spelling. But after specialized treatment emphasizing the letters in words, they showed similar patterns of brain activity. These findings are important because they show the human brain can change and normalize in response to spelling instruction, even in dyslexia, the most common learning disability. This 30-minute video, hosted by Henry Winkler, who has his own struggles with reading, explores how brain scientists are working to solve the puzzle of why some children struggle to read and others don't. Startling new research shows the answer may lie in how a child's brain is wired from birth. This program is the newest episode on , February 11, 2007 Dr. Just, a brain researcher at Carnegie Mellon University, and his colleagues, as well as brain imaging carried out at Georgetown University, Yale University and other centers, has proven that seeing letters in reverse or out of order is NOT the cause of dyslexia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI), which measures blood flow to different parts of the brain, researchers now know that dyslexia involves a weakness in the part of the brain that decodes the sounds of written language. That region sits above the left ear, at the junction of the brain's temporal and parietal lobes. Researchers have also shown that the right kind of intensive instruction can rewire the brain and help overcome reading deficits. When Carnegie Mellon scanned the brains of youngsters who received a year of concentrated reading instruction, they showed 40 percent more activity in the word decoding areas of their brains, Dr. A similar study at Yale showed that a year after receiving such instruction, boys and girls continued to show increased activity in both the word-decoding and word-forming areas of their brains. A study at Georgetown University showed that intensive intervention also helps adults with dyslexia. , December 4, 2007 Dyslexia marked by poor reading fluency—slow and choppy reading—may be caused by disorganized, meandering tracts of nerve fibers in the brain, according to researchers at Children's Hospital Boston and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. The study, using the latest imaging methods, gives researchers a glimpse of what may go wrong in the structure of some dyslexic readers' brains, making it difficult to integrate the information needed for rapid, “automatic” reading. , September 5, 2007 Using new software developed to investigate how the brains of dyslexic children are organized, University of Washington researchers have found that key areas for language and working memory involved in reading are connected differently in dyslexics than in children who are good readers and spellers. However, once the children with dyslexia received an intense and specialized instructional program, their patterns of functional brain connectivity normalized and were similar to those of good readers when deciding if sounds went with groups of letters in words. Excerpt from: “Dyslexic children use nearly five times the brain area” University of Washington press release UWNews.org, October 4, 1999 Dyslexic children use nearly five times the brain area as normal children while performing a simple language task, according to a new study by an interdisciplinary team of University of Washington researchers. The study shows, for the first time, that there are chemical differences in the brain function of dyslexic and non-dyslexic children. The research, published in the current issue of the , also provides new evidence that dyslexia is a brain-based disorder. This study, part of a wider UW effort to understand the basis of dyslexia and develop treatments for it, was funded by the National Institutes of Children Health and Human Development, a branch of the National Institutes of Health. Regardless of high or low overall scores on an IQ test, children with dyslexia show similar patterns of brain activity, according to researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health. The results call into question the discrepancy model – the current practice of classifying a child as dyslexic on the basis of a lag between reading ability and IQ score. , August 7, 2008 A new Carnegie Mellon University brain imaging study of dyslexic students shows that the brain can permanently rewire itself and overcome reading deficits, if students are given 100 hours of intensive remedial instruction. The study, published in the August issue of the journal , shows that the remedial instruction resulted in an increase in brain activity in several cortical regions associated with reading, and that gains became further solidified during the year following instruction. “This study demonstrates how remedial instruction can use the plasticity of the human brain to gain an educational improvement,” said neuroscientist Marcel Just, director of Carnegie Mellon's Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging (CCBI) and senior author of the study. “Focused instruction can help underperforming brain areas to increase their brain proficiency.” To read the entire article describing this study, click here. People with dyslexia vary in their ability to improve reading skills, but the brain basis for improvement remains largely unknown. These researchers performed a prospective, longitudinal study over 2.5 years on 25 children with and without dyslexia to discover whether initial behavioral or brain measures, including f MRI and DTI, could predict future long-term reading gains in dyslexia. This study showed that greater right prefrontal activation during a reading task that demanded phonological awareness, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus white-matter organization, significantly predicted future reading gains. The average dyslexic child is not diagnosed – and so does not begin to receive intensive reading help – until she is in 2nd or 3rd grade. But intervening in kindergarten, or earlier, is known to be effective. Studies in preschoolers have shown that glitches in certain prereading skills, such as rhyming or rapid object naming, are associated with later dyslexia. Nadine Gaab, a researcher at Children’s Hospital in Boston, hopes to pin down markers in younger children, perhaps even infants. A book containing all of the latest research on dyslexia written in layman's terms. Sally Shaywitz is one of the NIH's leading dyslexia researchers, is codirector of the Yale Center for the Study of Learning and Attention, and is well known for her f MRI brain scan studies as well as the Connecticut Longitudinal Study. Sally Shaywitz, author of , is an outstanding educator and speaker. Reid Lyon is the former branch chief of NICHD, the arm of the National Institutes of Health that has been conducting research into dyslexia for the past 25 years. Using brain scans, Gaab and her colleagues have found less gray matter in brain areas involved in mapping sounds in preschoolers, and neural deficits that prevent them from properly processing fast-changing sounds. In this superb book, you'll learn how: Susan Barton highly recommends this book to any parent, teacher, or other professional who interacts with children or adults with dyslexia. In this one-hour lecture, given at Harvard University on September 30, 2006, she explains why dyslexia and creativity are two sides of the same coin—and shares many case studies that prove it. Susan Barton was recently given a direct link to his research, as well as a link to a downloadable Power Point presentation Dr. For those who struggle with dyslexia, a reading problem that confounds 1 in every 5 Americans, the written word is a misfire in the mind. Indeed, a lifetime of reading problems can be traced to a distinctive flaw in the brain that makes the mind strain and stumble over written words. That telltale signature of dyslexia now can be detected reliably in brain scans of children as young as 7, researchers say. The scans showed that people with dyslexia have a much lower level of activity in areas at the back of the brain thought to be responsible for quickly matching words, sounds and meaning, compared to normal readers. “We know now that this disruption is not due simply to a lifetime of poor reading because we see it in children as young as age 7,” said Dr. Sally Shaywitz, director of the Yale University Center for Learning and Attention and co-author of the study published this month in the research journal . To read the National Institutes of Health's press release on this study, see NIH News Release: Children's Reading Disability Attributed to Brain Impairment. For additional background on brain research and reading, see the Q&A with Dr. Excerpt from: “55% of students who fail SATs have dyslexia or a learning disability” University of Hull Xtraordinary People publication, March 17, 2008 A new report released by Xtraordinary People on March 17, 2008, as part of their “No To Failure” project, has revealed the full extent of the hidden problem of dyslexia in classrooms around the country. In the screening phase of the study, a total of 1,341 pupils were screened in Year 3 and Year 7 in 20 schools across three different local authorities in England. This sample is reasonably representative of schools nationally, although slightly biased towards the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum. Overall, 55% of all pupils who failed to reach expected targets on the national Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) were found to be “at risk” for dyslexia, indicating that unidentified dyslexia is a major cause of educational failure that could be remedied, but which at present, is largely ignored. Xtraordinary People, a dyslexia charity supported by Sir Richard Branson, who is also dyslexic, is calling for the government to implement mandatory dyslexia awareness training for all teachers and to commit to providing dyslexia specialist training for one teacher in every school. Their No To Failure project is an empirical study to: “The link between dyslexia and academic failure has been made shockingly clear in our report. This level of failure is unacceptable and unnecessary because with a correct ‘diagnosis’ and support from trained specialists, dyslexic children can flourish. There is simply no need for these children to be slipping through the academic net,” said Kate Griggs, founder of Xtraordinary People. Because people with dyslexia are known to struggle with phonemes when reading, a US-based team of scientists at MIT wondered if they would also struggle hearing them in people’s voices. To investigate, the team grouped 30 people of similar age, education and IQ into two camps: those with and without dyslexia. The subjects went through a training period to learn to associate 10 different voices – half speaking English and half speaking Chinese – with 10 computer-generated avatars. Non-dyslexics outperformed people with dyslexia by 40% when listening to English. However, that advantage disappeared when the groups were listening to Chinese – because neither group had learned to hear Chinese phonemes. “Our results are the first to explicitly link impairment in reading ability to impairment in ecologically processing spoken language,” said researcher Tyler Perrachione. People with dyslexia often struggle with the ability to accurately decode and identify what they read. Although disrupted processing of speech sounds has been implicated in the underlying pathology of dyslexia, the basis for that disruption and how it interferes with reading has not been fully explained. Now, new research published by Cell Press in the December 22, 2011 issue of the journal finds that a specific abnormality in the processing of auditory signals accounts for the main symptoms of dyslexia. This new study shows that their left auditory cortex may be less responsive to modulations at specific frequencies that are optimal for analysis of speech sounds. New imaging research shows that the reduced brain activity associated with the onset of dyslexia develops before, not after, a child starts to read. Key parts of the brain’s rear left hemisphere critical to language processing do not undergo activity changes, the study suggests, which may be part of the cause. Guinevere Eden, director of the Center for the Study of Learning, a professor of pediatrics at Georgetown University, and past president of the International Dyslexia Association shared, “This means they have found a physiological signature for a child who is likely at risk for dyslexia, which will be of great help in doing what everyone really wants to do: identify and treat children with dyslexia as early as possible.” To read the entire article, click here. Although their unique brain architecture and “unusual wiring” make reading, writing, and spelling difficult, most people with dyslexia have gifts in areas controlled by the right hemisphere of the brain. The right side controls: A set of posters of famous people with dyslexia and/or ADD that teachers or parents can display on their walls. To view all of their posters about learning differences, click here. To view their poster of famous people with dyslexia, click here. No matter the scolding, the guilt, the prodding or the pushing, my mind does not enjoy reading. While others sprinted ahead, I lumbered forward, pausing between words and sentences as if they were high hurdles or steeple chase walls. Excerpt from: “I'm Not Ashamed of My Dyslexia” Doug Bursch The Moderate Voice.com, October 20, 2010 I don't enjoy reading. As I grew older, I began to tell people the story about how I used to be dyslexic, about how I grew out of my disability. I host a daily radio show and a few months back decided it would be nice to do a show on dyslexia, and share how I learned to read and “grow out” of dyslexia. In the middle of our interview, I proudly blurted out, “I'm dyslexic! He shares: I was 35 years old when I found out that I was dyslexic. Dyslexics lose their desire to read, or they never gain a desire, or they can't seem to maintain a desire to continue along the written page. It sounded right to me and it made me feel special, even though it was not true. I found a professor from Yale (Sally Shaywitz) who began to describe my life. ” I said those words as if I'd won a prize or at least found a place to stand without shame. My daughter, who is now 30, was being thrown out of the sixth grade at her private school. I met with the head of the school and he said: “She may not be up to what we're trying to accomplish." What he was really saying was that she didn't have the intelligence. I got really mad because I knew from talking to my daughter that she was smart, just as my father had known that I was smart when I was failing in school. By the time I got to college I had come to realize that I couldn't spell, no matter how hard I tried. We had her tested and all of the things that were going on with her were the same things that had been going on with me. So at the University of Oregon, I would sign up for extra courses. Then I would go around the first day of class and ask each professor: “What's your policy on misspelling? Let your English department worry about spelling,” I'd keep the course. If he said, “Three misspellings is a flunk,” I'd drop it. Steven Cannell is an avid spokesperson on dyslexia. In an inspiring video series, he explains what dyslexia is, recalls his experiences, and provides advice. Known for making America laugh on the Carol Burnett Show, Mc Hale's Navy, Dorf videos and more, Tim Conway traces his handiness with a hammer to a high school shop class, one of his favorite subjects because childhood dyslexia made it difficult for him to read. “People thought that I was kidding when I would read out loud in school, so they started laughing,” he recalls. Excerpt from: “The doctor is in—again: Patrick Dempsey of ‘Grey's Anatomy’ is being hailed as this TV season's comeback kid.” Michele Hatty “Dyslexia really hurt me during auditions. “For instance, the book Anderson Cooper is an Emmy Award winning American journalist, author, and the primary anchor of the CNN news show Anderson Cooper 360. There was a 10-year period where I had to memorize pages of dialogue and invest so much of my time and energy into every audition, going in knowing I wouldn't get it anyway,” Patrick Dempsey says with a trace of bitterness. Grey's creator, Shonda Rhimes, admits Dempsey's dyslexia threw her at first, particularly at the first few “table readings”—meetings when the cast gathers to read fresh scripts aloud. “I did not know about Patrick's dyslexia in the beginning," she says. “I actually thought that he didn't like the scripts from the way he approached the readings.” “When I found out, I completely understood his hesitation. Now that we all know, if he is struggling with a word, the other actors are quick to step up and help him out. Everyone is very respectful.” To read the entire interview, click here. From the Read Me website: Sara Entine, a talented independent filmmaker, has created a film that tells the story of her family, whose complicated relationships stem from misunderstandings due to unidentified dyslexia and AD/HD. It is the story of a mother, daughter, and granddaughter who long to feel seen, accepted, and loved for who they are. To watch a 10-minute trailer, free, on her website, click here. Excerpt from: “Dyslexic youth discovers talent as an actor” Jamie Portman When Luke Ford was diagnosed with dyslexia as a child in Australia, the last thing he expected was that it would launch him into an acting career and pave the way for a major role in a big Hollywood film like . He was told one of the best ways of dealing with dyslexia was to make his brain work in new areas. “So I went and tried to be a musician, but that didn't work,” he grins. Then he tried to be a painter and discovered he was pretty untalented in that area as well. “So then I thought, ‘All right, I'll do this drama class.’ They told me I was really good, and I got an A—but the next thing they did was to drop drama from my high school.” Ford's response to that was to quit school and try to become a professional actor. Excerpt from: “Tony Bennett says he's ‘never felt better’” Cassandra Szklarski jam.Bennett says coping with dyslexia, a learning disability that causes difficulty in reading and writing, has been an ongoing struggle throughout his impressive career. “I've always had a bit of dyslexia, so it's very hard for me to read proficiently,” says Bennett, known for a rich, natural vocal style that appears effortless. My eyes bounce, so it's difficult for me to follow musically that way. I have to do it instinctively and intuitively.” To read his story, click here. Excerpt from: “John Lennon: Imagine Dyslexia” Rafael Scarnati Learning Foundations.wordpress.com, December 13, 2010 Growing up, few people expected John Lennon to be any more successful than a pot scrubber or factory worker in Liverpool. Like many dyslexic children going to school, he was extremely bright yet grossly underestimated. He couldn't spell, even though he loved to read and write stories. He couldn't memorize the lyrics to other people's songs, but wrote amazingly creative lyrics himself. Except for his art classes, he got terrible grades. He was deemed a troublemaker, yet even when he dropped out of high school, his strong people skills and creativity moved his headmaster to make a special recommendation to get him into college. His is also a story that reveals both the challenges, and the gifts, of dyslexia. Excerpt from: “Seamless move to jazz music” Michelle Mc Donagh Irish Tom Mulcahy finds it difficult to put into words the impact that being diagnosed with dyslexia had on him after a lifetime of failing exams and feeling inadequate. He was an artist, a storyteller and a poet from a very early age. It was not until ten years ago, while he was in college pursing a degree in jazz performance, that he was finally diagnosed with dyslexia. After the nightmare of his school days, the diagnosis came as an enormous relief. My older siblings were clever in class, but I was regarded as being lazy. There was no help from the teachers in those days.” It is his passion for music, and jazz in particular, that kept him going through the many obstacles he faced. “I could not have accomplished what I have without having a passion for music and a strong commitment to my goals. As a student, I have had to embrace struggle as a necessary part of my growth.” “Understanding that I wasn't stupid, and that I just learned differently was a long journey that required a lot of reflection, perseverance and hard work. I learned that just the label of dyslexia is not enough to help a struggling learner.” He devised ingenious methods of using technologies such as slow-speed transcribers, digital dictaphones, computers, and i Pods to help him in his studies. He now advises others with dyslexia to do the same. In teaching children with dyslexia, Mulcahy believes the best approach is to focus on their strengths. Excerpt from: “Seasoned Chef Still Perfecting His Recipe for Success” Linda Broatch Great As the sous chef at a five-star hotel in Florida, Jeremy Emerson once faced a situation so terrifying that he briefly imagined abandoning the career he loved. He was asked, without warning, to read aloud during a meeting of the hotel's 30-plus department heads. And he did what many dyslexic adults do in such situations, no matter how confident they usually are—he panicked. Raised in England in the 1970's and 80's, Jeremy spent his elementary and secondary school years struggling to learn, not aware that he had dyslexia. Picking up on cues from the adults around him, he assumed that he must be lazy or stupid. Dyslexia runs in families, and both of Jeremy's brothers are dyslexic. Jeremy's older brother, Julian, had been “asked to leave school.” Yet he is now a software engineer for Intel. Jeremy has been the Executive Chef at San Francisco's Four Seasons Hotel since 2003, where he manages a staff of 50. Three decades after his Pompidou Center in Paris turned the architecture world upside down and brought him global fame, the British architect Richard Rogers has been named the 2007 winner of the Pritzker Prize, the profession's highest honor. The award—a $100,000 grant and a bronze medallion—is to be presented to Rogers on June 4, 2007 at the Banqueting House in London. Other high profile projects by Rogers include the sprawling Millennium Dome in Greenwich, England; the new terminal at Barajas International Airport in Madrid; and Terminal 5 at London's Heathrow Airport. Yet when his family moved to England in 1938, Richard struggled through the public school system. It was not until many years later that he received a diagnosis of dyslexia. “We didn't know about dyslexia.” To read the entire article, click here. (Japanese) Since his primary school days, Todo felt his efforts to write kanji were in vain, no matter how hard he tried. When he was in primary school, his mother taught him how to pronounce and guess the meaning of kanji by breaking them into their elements, much the way that foreign students study kanji. He still makes major mistakes when writing in kanji, and often confuses certain hiragana characters. “It's like all the textual information is coming out to me at once,” he explained. “It's so tiring to find my place.” Todo's memories of school life in Japan are bitter. In primary, his teachers did not accept students as they were, but instead, insisted on forcing the “different” students to become “normal.” Todo was labeled a difficult student and was treated as such. He became even more frustrated while at boarding school during his middle school years. “But my mother always accepted me the way I am,” he said. “If you can realize, even just once, that someone appreciates who you are, that feeling can last long, give you hope, and eventually the courage to try something.” His mother sent him to Britain for high school, where his relatives had once worked or studied. The testing also revealed his strengths, in particular, excellent spatial perception. He studied 3-D modeling and graphic design when he took his A-levels at Cambridge. In 2002, he matriculated to London's Architectural Association School of Architecture, where he graduated this summer. After his diagnosis, his mother, Eiko, established a nonprofit organization in Japan called EDGE (Extraordinary Dyslexic Gifted Eclectic) to help those with dyslexia improve their innate strengths further so they can live with self-confidence. Christie Craig is an award-winning writer, whose zany, humorous tales of romance, suspense, and life at its wackiest is one reason four of her books were accepted for publication on the very same day. During the interview, the reporter asked about her dyslexia: Q: How difficult was it for a kid with dyslexia to grow into a successful romance novelist? A: I seriously believe that I succeeded in this very hard business not in spite of my dyslexia, but in part, because of it. We pick up on people's emotions, body language, and tone of voice. Nothing came easy to me, and I didn't expect writing to be any different. So I could easily tap into human emotions, add my imagination, and—bingo. To learn more about Christie Craig and her books, go to The most needed tool to make it in this business I already had tucked inside—perseverance. Excerpt from: “Living with dyslexia” Debbie Macomber has written more than 100 books. She has sold more than 60 million books worldwide, and is a New York Times bestselling author. Not bad for someone who couldn't read until she was 11. “I was the only girl in the slow reading group,” says Debbie, on a visit to Dublin to publicize her latest book. “I am dyslexic, but they didn't have a word for that when I was a child,” says Debbie, who is from Washington State. “My teacher said, ‘Debbie is a nice girl, but she will never do well at school.’ And I didn't.” To read the rest of this story, click here. Excerpt from: “Schultz wins Pulitzer Prize” Deepti Hajela Democrat And Rochester, New York, native and poet Philip Schultz is among this year's winners of the Pulitzer Prizes. In a recent interview with Garrison Keillor, Schultz said he was a “terrible student” who suffered from dyslexia. He did not learn to read until he was in the fifth grade. Associated Press George Archer, the former Masters champion who died in September, kept a lifelong secret that his widow recently revealed in Golf for Women magazine. “Despite years of effort, he never learned to read beyond a rudimentary level. He never could write more than a few crude sentences,” Donna Archer wrote in the article, “The Secret They Shared”. “Eventually, he was able to get through an article on the sports page, and he learned to write his name for autographs,” she wrote, “But that was it.” “Over the years, George became incredibly adept at covering up his disability. But he was always afraid fans would want him to personalize an autograph, or that he'd have to read some prepared sentences on television.” When Duncan Goodhew won the 100 meter breaststroke gold medal at the Moscow Olympics in 1980, he knew his life would never be the same. He said, “For me, the whole process of swimming was to change the deck of cards, because dyslexia is incredibly corrosive to your spirit. “At the age of seven, I was asked to read out loud in class. I was fidgeting so much that I was literally tied to a chair and put in a corner with the dunce's hat on. “There was a lack of understanding then—and it's still happening. “Dyslexia is like being in a job you're not qualified for, and you don't speak the language. You're sitting there being told you are stupid all day, every day. “School gave me a fundamental understanding of what I was not good at. It gave me an acute desire to find something, a life preserver, and I found swimming.” , September 27, 2007 Olympic fencer Molly Sliney spent the day at Highlands School last Friday. I decided to believe that I was dumb and stupid.” To learn how she turned her life around by reading the entire story, click here. The athlete, coach and motivational speaker shared not only her fencing expertise, but also her struggle with dyslexia, telling students that she is proof that anyone can set goals and achieve them if they learn to believe in themselves. She returned to her seat, frustrated and stung by their taunts of “dumb” and “stupid.” “Boys and girls, when people say bad things about you,” she said, “you have two choices. Excerpt from: “Please look after the poor wee boy at the back” David Leafe uk Reclining in the comfort of an executive limousine and looking every inch the motor-racing legend and multimillionaire businessman that he is, Sir Jackie Stewart shared that his parents were baffled by his poor performance at school. Her many accomplishments in sports are impressive: Yet her proudest accomplishment was receiving her degree from Notre Dame. Her teacher gave her “the easiest word on the list” to spell. He remembers with horror one occasion when, as a little boy, he was asked to read in front of the class. Not bad for a kid who couldn't read until the age of 9. “All I could see as I looked at the book was a jungle: a whole clutter of words. My teacher, Miss Shaw, was telling me to get on with it, but I was blushing and couldn't swallow. “All around me, the other children were sniggering, or pretending to blow their noses to hide their laughter.” Describing school as “the most painful and humiliating period of my life,” he recalls his desire to leave school at the age of 15. “When you are being called thick, dumb and stupid, you end up leaning towards others who are like you, who won't humiliate and abuse you. Unfortunately, I ended up in a very bad crowd.” It was not until he was 42, and one of his sons was diagnosed with dyslexia, that he discovered, “I wasn't stupid after all. I felt like I had been saved from drowning.” To read the entire story, click here. Because I was teased in school, I became a master at “fake it until you make it.” In meetings, I'd pretend I could read the papers being passed out. , April 2, 2008 With a $2,000 loan from my mother, I have grown my Tempe-based firm, Terri's Consign & Design Furnishings, into the largest U. resale furniture retailer, with 16 stores and $36 million in annual sales. People ask if I attribute my success to overcoming dyslexia. I tell them that I have not, and never will, overcome dyslexia. Yes, I run a national company, but I still use a Franklin Talking Dictionary to try to spell fifth-grade vocabulary words. But at least I've shown my grade school teachers that it is not that I wasn't trying hard enough. To read the entire article, and learn about the many tools Terri uses to compensate, click here. , June 27, 2007 John Chambers leads one of the largest high tech firms in the world—networking gear maker Cisco Systems—but the West Virginia native could not keep up with classmates as an elementary student. Chambers suffered from dyslexia, crippling his reading abilities and damaging his confidence. “There's nothing harder on you than when people come around the classroom in first, second, and third grade and call on you. Your stomach tightens up; you know you'll mess up the reading,” he told IBD. Chambers says dyslexia is especially frustrating because more effort couldn't fix the problem. “My parents would sit and read with me in the evening, and it would get worse, not better,” he said. The process did more than help him read more easily. “Once you understand that you can overcome something that you doubted you would ever overcome, you gain more inner confidence. It helped me learn to deal with the challenges in life.” To read the entire story, click here. Excerpt from: “Barbara Corcoran: ‘Jersey girl’ trumped Trump with street smarts” Jay Mc Donald As a girl growing up in New Jersey, Barbara Corcoran would gaze across the Hudson River at the Manhattan skyline, not knowing that one day, she would reign as queen of New York residential real estate. Severe dyslexia earned her nothing more than straight D's in school and dire warnings from the nuns. “I was terrified that I would make a huge mistake.” The night before filming began, Jo was sick all night long. But what she could not accomplish in school, she made up for with a winning personality and a way with people. , May 28, 2010 Fearless on the shop floor and in the boardroom, fragrance tycoon Jo Malone found the transition from business guru to TV presenter terrifying. The next morning, she told the editor, “I can't do this. I can't read the script.” To find out what happened next, and how this high school dropout became a business guru, click here to read the entire article. , June 6, 2008 Evan Paul started playing video games to escape from the realities of middle school. Evan, who is dyslexic, recently completed his freshman year at the University of Arizona. He is founder and CEO of the online game-trading site, e Game Place.com, valued at $30 million. “Going through school, I felt like I was a stupid failure,” Evan shared. “Slowly but surely, because I did not give up, I eventually began to learn to read and things began to come together for me. It was by no means easy.” Evan would play video games when he came home from school, after a long day of bullying and struggling in class. “When I was younger, the only people who believed in me were myself and my family.” Last year, he started the Dyslexic Dream Foundation, and he donates 70 to 80 percent of his earnings to fund programs to help students overcome dyslexia. “The goal of the foundation is to raise awareness, and to educate teachers and schools,” he said. “I also set up scholarships because some of the great private schools cost more than some colleges.” To read the entire article, click here. Excerpt from: “Leadership guru addresses chamber” Reflector.com, October 6, 2010 Former CEO and president of Up With People, the largest non-profit in the world, Tommy Spaulding has become a guru on the topic of leadership. In a luncheon speech to promote his book, he shared how he won a prestigious Rotary Ambassadorial Scholarship to get an MBA—despite struggling with dyslexia in school. As an East Carolina University graduate with only a 2.0 GPA, he faced stiff competition for the scholarship from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton graduates with perfect academic records. His experience with his college roommate who was paralyzed in his freshman year, plus his rejection by 35 law schools, pulled at the heart strings of the committee. But it was his treatment of the bartender at the hotel where the scholarship committee held interviews that got him the award. The committee was deadlocked between Spaulding and a Harvard graduate when the chairman asked the bartender what he thought. Spaulding had spent hours talking to the bartender about his life and family, while the other applicants ignored him. “The committee heard about my heart and passion from the bartender, and they overlooked my grades,” he said. Spaulding's book, , December 6, 2007 It has long been known that dyslexics are drawn to running their own businesses, where they can get around their weaknesses in reading and writing and play on their strengths. But a new study of entrepreneurs in the United States suggests that dyslexia is much more common among small-business owners than even the experts had thought. The report, compiled by Julie Logan, a professor of entrepreneurship at the Cass Business School in London, found that more than a third of the entrepreneurs she surveyed identified themselves as dyslexic. “We found that dyslexics who succeed had overcome an awful lot in their lives by developing compensatory skills,” said Professor Logan. “If you tell your friends that you plan to start a business, you'll hear over and over, ‘It won't work. It can't be done.’ But dyslexics are extraordinarily creative about maneuvering their way around problems.” To read the entire article, click here. Excerpt from: “First Person: A Judge's Story” Jeffrey H. I couldn't write, spell, or read, or answer questions quickly. Gallet Everyone at school said that I was lazy or stupid or both. I didn't even know which hand to put over my heart when we recited the Pledge of Allegiance. My mother was a trained teacher, but even she did not understand dyslexia. But my parents never gave up on me, although it must have been a great disappointment to those two scholarly people that their first born could barely graduate from high school. They encouraged me to go to college and I did, graduating last in my class. I wanted to go to law school, and Brooklyn Law School took a chance on me. I was lucky to have loving parents, as well as a college professor and a law school roommate who supported me, encouraged me, tutored me, and refused to let me fall victim to my frustrations and give up. I wasn't diagnosed with a learning disability until I was 35. Having failed English courses in both high school and college, I finally learned how to write. But today, with 5 books and over 30 articles to my credit, I still suffer from an irrational fear that I am about to make a fool of myself every time I sit down to write. I agreed to write this article, after first refusing, because as a judge, almost every week I see a learning disabled child who, undiagnosed or untreated, is venting his or her frustrations in anti-social ways. If not for loving, caring, involved parents, my frustrations at not being able to keep up in class, and to some extent in the play yard, could have burst forth in the same self-destructive way. The schools and the courts have not met their responsibilities to LD children. They have not allocated the resources to do what must be done. To read the entire article, which includes Judge Gallet's attempts to improve the judicial system, click here. Excerpt from: “AP Interview: Malloy overcame dyslexia, physical struggles” Susan Haigh Boston.com, May 29, 2006 When Dan Malloy accepted the Democratic Party's nomination for governor at this month's state convention, he mentioned how proud his mother would have been had she lived to see that moment. As a child, Malloy struggled to read, calculate math problems, and even tie his shoes. He suffered from dyslexia at a time when the term “learning disabilities” was uncommon. As late as fourth grade, Malloy's teachers thought he was mentally retarded. He recalls how one teacher posted his failing spelling grades on the chalkboard. Malloy, 50, and mayor of Stamford, said “People from my childhood would not have predicted the level of success I've been able to accomplish.” To read the entire interview, click here. Maggie Aderin, who holds a Bachelors degree in Physics and a Ph. in Mechanical Engineering, has built telescopes, has helped create instruments to test missile warning systems and detect landmines, as well as satellites that monitor climate change. Yet her teachers dismissed her when she declared she wanted to study science because she had dyslexia. She shared: I was not considered very bright because I had dyslexia. When I first told my teachers I wanted to study science, they shook their heads and said I should consider something else. My father always said if you work hard, you can achieve so much. Although I suffered from dyslexia, I was quite logical, and I really loved science because I loved being hands on. When people realized I was good at science, I got lots of tuition and encouragement. In her first year at Imperial College in London, she was one of only two black people, and one of only ten women, in her class of 200. The work is hard, the pay is good, and it can be fun. Her company, Science Innovation Limited, has a program to get the public engaged in science, especially girls and minorities. She'll also appear in two of the BBC's upcoming six-part science series, “The Cosmos: A Beginner's Guide.” To read the rest of her story, click here. Excerpt from: “Obama picks alumnus for teaching excellence award” Cayla Gales State Hornet.com, December 8, 2010 Shortly after failing third grade, Mark Fairbank found out he had dyslexia. But that did not stop him from becoming an award-winning teacher. President Obama recently declared Fairbank one of the top science and math teachers in the country. He will receive the Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching. every single day, including Saturdays and Sundays, so I could make it through.” He received help from his mother, who read textbooks to him, and from his wife and best friend who typed his papers. Excerpt from: “Jack Horner: An Intellectual Autobiography” Jack Horner I suffered from a lack of confidence due to dyslexia. Thompson said, “but you also just explained me.” To read the entire article, click here. Even as a third grader, Fairbank knew he wanted to teach chemistry. So I went to community college for three years,” Fairbank said. I wasn't diagnosed until well after I had reached adulthood, had struggled through school being considered lazy, dumb, and perhaps even retarded, and had flunked out of college seven times. Excerpt from: “Award May Be a Big Brake for Clever Edward” Joseph Watts This Is uk, October 1, 2007 He may be too young to drive, but that has not stopped Edward Wilson from winning a top prize for a road-safety invention. Most people expected I'd wind up working at a service station, or if I was really lucky, I might get to drive a truck at my father's gravel plant. At home, there was usually a microscope on the dinner table. The 16-year-old's innovative brake light system shows how quickly a car is slowing, and it won Edward the Design and Innovation Trophy at the 2007 Young Engineer for Britain awards. Kindergarten through eighth grade was extremely difficult for me because my progress in reading, writing, and mathematics was excruciatingly slow. he researched human temperature regulation at the National Institutes of Health. Edward's device, called Slow Safe, warns a driver that the car ahead of them is slowing without the person in the car in front putting their foot on the brake. I would never read out loud in class, even if the teachers threatened to give me failing grades. This patent-pending invention should reduce accidents and traffic jams. The joke was that I only carried schoolbooks to ballast my lanky body against the strong winds of Montana. Instead of writing things down, he kept information in his head. Edward will be giving presentations to car manufacturers for the next few months, trying to persuade them to use Slow Safe. an extraordinarily bad speller and have remained so until this day. Eventually, I managed to graduate from high school, but just barely, having received Ds in all required classes, including English, in which my grade was a D minus, minus, minus. in which I excelled: science projects.” Jack Horner became one of the most well known paleontologists in the world. His mother, Serena Wilson, shared that her son's achievement was all the more impressive because he also had to deal with dyslexia. He even wrote his own computer program, and no one taught him how to do that. “At times, his dyslexia made things hard, but he persevered.” To read the entire article, click here. where nobody understood the meaning of learning disorder. Writing and spelling were always terribly difficult for me. Agatha Christie I was, on the whole, considerably discouraged by my school days. The teacher told me that this was essentially an F, but that he never wanted to see me again. He has discovered the most dinosaur eggs, the first dinosaur embryos, and three species of dinosaurs. In the West Indies, I was constantly being physically abused because the whipping of students was permitted. Cannell, screenwriter, producer, & director I never read in school. Almost everything I learned, I had to learn by listening. It was not pleasant to feel oneself so completely outclassed and left behind at the beginning of the race. Although he never graduated from college, Jack received the Mac Arthur Foundation Award (called the “Genius Award”), several honorary doctorate degrees, and served as technical advisor for all of the Jurassic Park films. Excerpt from: “Billionaire inventor James Sorenson dies at 86” Diana Rosenthal CNNMoney.com, January 22, 2008 James Sorenson, inventor of the computerized heart monitor and of disposable paper surgical masks, died on Sunday. Harry Belafonte Since I was the stupidest kid in my class, it never occurred to me to try and be perfect, so I've always been happy as a writer just to entertain myself. I got really bad grades—D's and F's and C's in some classes, and A's and B's in other classes. My report cards always said that I was not living up to my potential. Winston Churchill I had to train myself to focus my attention. Although he was the richest man in Utah when he died, with a fortune estimated at $4.5 billion, he struggled through the Great Depression, and dyslexia, to emerge as one of the century's great inventors. Excerpt from: “Professor transcended dyslexia for a life of the mind” Stephanie Hayes Tampa Bay.com, November 3, 2007 He was the kid with the butterfly net. I became very visual and learned how to create mental images in order to comprehend what I read. Tom Cruise You should prefer a good scientist without literary abilities than a literate one without scientific skills. my father thought I was stupid, and I almost decided I must be a dunce. Thomas Edison He told me that his teachers reported that … he was mentally slow, unsociable, and adrift forever in his foolish dreams. Hans Albert Einstein, on his father, Albert Einstein Having made a strenuous effort to understand the symbols he could make nothing of, he wept giant tears… Caroline Commanville, on her uncle, Gustave Flaubert Kids made fun of me because I was dark skinned, had a wide nose, and was dyslexic. Even as an actor, it took me a long time to realize why words and letters got jumbled in my mind and came out differently. Danny Glover, actor I barely made it through school. But I like to find things that nobody else has found, like a dinosaur egg that has an embryo inside. Horner, American paleontologist I am, myself, a very poor visualizer and find that I can seldom call to mind even a single letter of the alphabet in purely retinal terms. Well, there are 36 of them in the world, and I found 35. I must trace the letter by running my mental eye over its contour in order that the image of it shall leave any distinctness at all. William James, psychologist and philosopher I just barely got through school. The problem was a learning disability, at a time when there was nowhere to get help. My solution back then was to read classic comic books because I could figure them out from the context of the pictures. Charles Schwabb My problem was reading very slowly. As long as you're going to read, just keep at it.” We didn't know about learning disabilities back then. Bruce Jenner, Olympic gold medalist The looks, the stares, the giggles … Nelson Rockefeller When I had dyslexia, they didn't diagnose it as that. I could tell you a lot of horror stories about what you feel like on the inside. Roger Wilkins, Head of the Pulitzer Prize Board As a child, I was called stupid and lazy. My parents had no idea that I had a learning disability. I wanted to show everybody that I could do better and also that I could read. although he was bright and intelligent and bursting with energy, he was unable to read and write. Henry Winkler My father was an angry and impatient teacher and flung the reading book at my head. Patton's wife corrected his spelling, his punctuation, and his grammar. William Butler Yeats Willie was sent to lessons in spelling and grammar, but he never learned to spell. Biographer Martin Blumenson on General George Patton I was one of the “puzzle children” myself—a dyslexic … To the end of his life he produced highly idiosyncratic versions of words. Norman Jeffares on William Butler Yeats I hated school.… One of the reasons was a learning disability, dyslexia, which no one understood at the time. Loretta Young Excerpt from: “Letter: Septuagenarian triumphs over dyslexia thanks to tutor” Edward Hall TCPalm.com, December 23, 2007 Recently, I read a book for the first time. But for a man in his 70's, this meant the world to me. My wife told me I had actually given her a sympathy card. Historically, students with dyslexia have been ignored, labeled “dumb,” put in the back of the room and left alone. The reality is that those with dyslexia are bright and eager to learn. Excerpt from: “Overcoming obstacles: Dyslexia doesn't hold down FVTC grad” Krista B. I spent decades living in shame and fear of being “found out.” I refused countless promotions just so my co-workers would not learn I could not read. A volunteer tutor in an adult literacy program taught Mr. Ledbetter The Northwestern.com, December 10, 2006 Tina Krueger, 45, spent nearly 20 years working in the Osh Kosh B'Gosh factory before her department shut down in 2004. I look at them now and wonder, ‘What was I trying to say? There are so many people out there willing to help. Left without a job, she made the decision to return to school. ’” It took a leap of faith for her to enroll in FVTC. You are not doing it alone.” To read the entire article, click here. But one hurdle stood in her way—Krueger has dyslexia. “It was a difficult two years,” admitted Kruger, who attended full-time. Excerpt from: “How I hid not being able to read or write” Linda Worden uk, July 30, 2008 Thinking back to my school days, all I can remember is the pain as I struggled from a young age. Krueger says she has moderate to severe dyslexia which made schooling difficult for as long as she can remember. On Saturday, she graduated with an AA degree in Marketing and a 3.9 grade point average. Classes were so big that I would just sit quietly at the back, or find any excuse not to be there at all. My reports were full of the usual lines: “Linda could do better … There were times I would miss something important—appointments, bills—because I didn't dare to open the mail. Linda's lazy,” when, in fact, I just kept quiet so no one would notice that I could not do the work. Yet I could sell myself, coming across as full of confidence, impressing people at face value. What I lost through not being able to read and write, I gained in other ways. People always commented on my smile and cheerful personality. I have done all sorts of jobs—including factory work and restaurant work—but the minute I received any sort of promotion that would have revealed my weaknesses, I'd leave. Excerpt from: “Kersten: Defeating dyslexia at home” Katherine Kerston Star Tribune.com, August 18, 2005 For years I dreaded this time of year: back-to-school time. For my elementary-school-aged daughter, it meant another year of teasing, frustration, and a constant sense of defeat. I first realized that something was wrong during her kindergarten year. Try as we might, with songs, games and repetition, she couldn't learn the alphabet. After first grade, my husband and I had her tested. She scored between the fifth and tenth percentiles in reading—as if she had never been to school. In the classroom and on the playground, my daughter endured misery. Often, her teachers didn't comprehend the nature of her difficulties, or thought she wasn't trying. “Learning to read at school was like trying to run through mud,” she says now. “You struggle so hard, but you never seem to get anywhere.” To read the entire article, click here. Excerpt of an article Imogen Stubbs, a parent, published by an Australian newspaper. For many dyslexic children, the experience of reading and writing is like driving in a foreign country. Everything seems to be on the wrong side, going in the wrong direction. It requires exhausting concentration—and you experience a sense of tension, fear and total isolation as everyone roars past, hooting and looking at you as if you were an idiot. When you finally reach your destination, after many wrong turns and a circuitous route that has taken an insanely long time, you then have no desire ever to get behind the wheel again. You could excel behind the wheel, if only you were on familiar roads. Meanwhile, your hosts have gone off to a party without you. Her child wrote: when i do riting and pariigrafs my brayn is uncunferdble and herts and i get the writ word but wen it travls down my arm it disapeeurs befour it coms out of my hand and sumtymes im chrying. Excerpt from: “A Senior Citizen Reflects on Her Lifelong Struggle With Dyslexia” Janet Bell Great In June 1928, my mother enrolled me in first grade. I was going to learn wonderful things and have lots of fun. In the years that followed, I found school was full of fear and frustration. I quickly was labeled “the dumb kid.” Every day in school, I hid behind the child in front of me so the teacher wouldn't call on me. Writing the alphabet was easy, but reading it was a problem. This played havoc with my spelling, and I worked hard to memorize words for weekly spelling tests. I studied every night, but my father would get frustrated with me. He'd bang his fist on the table and say something like, “Use your head! ” In spite of all this, I managed to receive a high school diploma. But my belief that I was dumb overshadowed my entire adult life. Three years ago, at the suggestion of a co-worker, I purchased a book on dyslexia. As I read the first few pages, I was in shock and tears. My immediate and joyful reaction was, “Dear Blessed God, I am not dumb. At last I knew there was a reason for my being different—different, not dumb. Today a teacher or dyslexia testing specialist can say to parents, “Your daughter has dyslexia, and we can help her.” How I wish my parents could have heard those words. When Mackenzie Meyer was identified with dyslexia, she was told she would not be able to reach her goal of becoming a veterinarian. As a result, she has pursued her dream in full force and is a shining example for any LD student who has been told to lower her expectations. Here is the beginning of her essay: President Obama has a nation of educators looking for “it.” Steve Jobs of Apple Computer wants to unleash “it.” Superpower countries like the US, China and India are in the race of their lives for “it.” As for me … well, I already have “it.” Actually, I was born with “it.” I was born with the gift to create, to invent new ways of doing and being. I am a person who learns differently and therefore, by default, sees differently and will help this planet in ways it has yet to see. Oh, yeah, I know it sounds like I have it totally together and have long since figured out that having a learning disability is a gift. Just as it is with anybody who has a disability, you have two choices: you can take the easy way out and accept that you will have a life with limits, or decide that you are going to fight for the life you want to have and are meant to have. To read the rest of this inspiring essay, click here. Source: “The Gift of Learning Differently” Mackenzie Meyer Application essay for the Anne Ford and Allegra Ford Scholarship Published April 28, 2010 Excerpt from: “College Student with Learning Disabilities Designs His Own Future” Linda Broatch Great Schools.org, March 11, 2005 Identified with dyslexia in sixth grade, Charles Rachal always struggled in school. Even now, with college graduation in sight, he seems a little surprised at what he has accomplished. During middle school and high school, it seemed that no matter how hard he worked, he rarely made good grades—and regularly made bad ones. Fortunately, his parents didn't pressure him about his grades, except when they thought he hadn't given a class his best effort. “It took me 15 years to figure out how to do well in school. When you have a disability, you have to use your strengths to defeat it.” To read the entire article and his advice to parents of kids with learning and attention problems, click here. Excerpt from: “Spinning in My Head” Henry Sherwin Great Schools.org, April 13, 2001 What's good and smart about me? I have a good memory and can remember songs and what people say in movies. Animals love me because I'm not afraid, and they sense this. I'm good at playing the clarinet and the saxophone. And I can make anyone laugh with my voices and faces. My mother and teachers call it a learning disability. This means I can't learn things as fast as other kids, and languages are harder. It's tough when I see others succeeding, and I can't do it as easily. The “Good Zone” is when things fall into place and click for me. Here are some things that help me get into the “Good Zone.” To read the rest of Henry's article, click here. Excerpt from: “The Path to Success: Pearls of Wisdom from Anne Ford Scholarship Applicants” Noreen Byren Here is one excerpt of an Anne Ford Scholarship application: I am a very determined person, and I don't like being told that I have limits on what I can do with my life. Fact: Dyslexia is one of the most researched and documented conditions that will impact children. I am the kind of person who believes that one person can change the world and make it a better place, and that you can do anything you set your mind to. I no longer want to do this just to prove to everyone who ever doubted me that they were wrong. And when I do, I will be able to help children who went through the same thing I did. Over 30 years of independent, scientific, replicated, published research exists on dyslexia—much of it done through the National Institutes of Health, funded by taxpayer dollars. Even more research is contained in the books and websites on our More Info page. For years, my main goal was to graduate high school, go to college, and then go back to Dr. Take a look at the Dyslexia Fact Sheet published by the International Dyslexia Association. Some have it only mildly, some have it moderately, some have it severely, and some have it profoundly. Fact: According to the NIH researchers, in the United States, dyslexia impacts 20% of our population. Very few children with dyslexia are in the special education system. Only 1 in 10 will be eligible for an IEP (when tested in second or third grade) under the category of Learning Disability (LD). That means 9 out of 10 “fall through the cracks.” Although the parents and the teacher know there's something different about the child, the child does not qualify for special education services, and most will no longer get help from the reading specialist after first or second grade. It is the most common reason a child will struggle first with spelling, then with written expression, and eventually “hit the wall” in reading development by third grade. It seems when boys in first, second, or third grade can't do classroom assignments or homework, they get frustrated and act out their frustration. Fact: Although more boys are sent for testing than girls, research shows that dyslexia impacts just as many girls as boys. Parents and teachers notice that behavior and then try to figure out why they are behaving that way—by sending them for testing. But often, when girls in first, second, or third grade can't do the work, they tend to get quiet, move to the back of the room, and try to become invisible. Often, their dyslexia is not discovered until high school or even college. That is why vision therapy does not work for this population. Yes, they reverse their b's and their d's and say “was” for “saw.” But that's caused by their lifelong confusion over left versus right and by their difficulty reading by sounding out. That means waiting—due to a false hope that it will disappear as the child gets older—is the worst thing you can do. The child will only get further and further behind—unless that child gets the right type of intervention or tutoring. Fact: People with dyslexia do not see things backwards. All the experts agree: Waiting is the worst thing you can do. There are effective research-based methods that will bring their reading, spelling, and writing skills up to—and beyond—grade level. Although it is never too late to greatly improve their skills, early intervention is the best way to prevent or minimize the damage to their self-esteem, their emotional distress, and their fear of going to school. Fact: Most children will reverse some of their letters and some of their numbers while they are learning. Up to a certain point, that is considered perfectly normal. But those reversals should be gone after two years of handwriting instruction and practice. But letter or number reversals that continue after two years of handwriting instruction and practice are a classic warning sign of dyslexia. If a child truly has dyslexia, however, the child will have many of the other classic warning signs of dyslexia. Fact: Professionals with in-depth training can accurately diagnose dyslexia as early as age 5. Doctors have no training in how to test for reading, spelling, and writing problems. To learn who should—and who should not—test for dyslexia, the types of tests that are given, and the types of errors and difficulties that a tester is looking for, click here. And there is no medical solution (no pill or operation) for those types of academic struggles. That is also why medical insurance does not cover anything having to do with dyslexia. The International Dyslexia Association publishes a Fact Sheet on Testing. That means you can have a very high IQ and be dyslexic, you can have an average IQ and be dyslexic, and you can have low IQ and be dyslexic. Many people with dyslexia are very bright and accomplish amazing things as adults. Take a look at our list of over 200 famous dyslexics. Fact: Everyone with dyslexia can read—up to a point. But they will “hit the wall” in reading development by third grade, if not sooner. When reading, they have great difficulty sounding out an unknown word—despite being taught phonics. They will often read a word fine on one page, but not recognize the very same word on the next page. But it is spelling that separates kids with dyslexia from kids who struggle with reading for some other reason. If the child and their parents spend hours and hours studying the spelling list, the child may be able to learn the list of 20 spelling words long enough to do “okay” on Friday's test. But they cannot retain those spelling words from one week to the next. They also cannot spell when writing sentences or paragraphs—not even the high frequency words such as “because,” “friend,” or “does.” That's why extreme difficulty with spelling is considered a classic warning sign of dyslexia—and why the International Dyslexia Association publishes a Fact Sheet on Spelling. Fact: Independent, scientific, replicated research on reading development shows just the opposite. It shows that if a child is struggling with reading, writing, and spelling in mid-first grade, that child has better than 90% odds of still struggling with those skills in eighth grade and on into adulthood if someone doesn't step in and do something. That means less than 10% of the time will a child outgrow those struggles. That also means waiting is the worst thing you can do. The child is only going to get further and further behind. Fact: Dyslexia is not the only reason a child will struggle with reading, but it is the most common reason. Phonics is not the answer for a child with dyslexia. How can you tell whether dyslexia is the cause of the child's reading struggles? The teacher can use the best phonics program in the world, but it will not prevent a child with dyslexia from “hitting the wall” by third grade. That's why these organizations are against retention. Most parents already know that phonics does not help. That's why a classic warning sign of dyslexia is a child who can not sound out an unknown word—despite being taught phonics. “Through many years of research, the practice of retaining children has been shown to be ineffective in meeting the needs of children who are academically delayed.” “Social promotion and grade retention are mechanical responses to an educational problem. Most parent have already tried “Hooked on Phonics”—and it did not improve their child's reading or spelling. The scandal is how little attention they give to preventing failure in the first place.” “Neither social promotion nor retention is appropriate for students who do not meet high academic standards.” “The weight of the evidence of literally hundreds of studies shows that retaining children does NOT produce higher achievement.” For links to these studies, click here. Fact: Reading out loud will not teach a dyslexic child how to sound out unknown words. They will continue to try to memorize the shape of a word, and use picture clues or context clues to guess at the words. If a child cannot easily and accurately sound out unknown words, especially multi-syllable words, by the time the child starts third grade, that child will “hit the wall” in reading development. Reading out loud for 20 minutes a day will not teach that missing skill—reading by sounding out, which is also called “decoding” or “word attack.” The inability to decode is caused by weak phonemic awareness skills. Part of the research-based definition of dyslexia is a child who lacks age appropriate phonemic awareness skills. Fact: People with dyslexia can become excellent readers, decent spellers, and good writers if they receive the right type of intervention or tutoring. Independent, scientific, replicated research recommends an Orton-Gillingham based system as the most effective way to improve the reading, writing, and spelling skills of people with dyslexia. That's why the International Dyslexia Association publishes two fact sheets on Orton-Gillingham. There are seven well-known Orton-Gillingham based systems. The Barton Reading & Spelling System is one of the best. Fact: If students with dyslexia do not receive the right type of tutoring and classroom accommodations, they often struggle in school—despite being bright, motivated, and spending hours on homework assignments. Even though he sometimes fails, he will not give up on his education. He wrote this open letter to educators: You have questioned my abilities and my need for help. You have no concept of the effort and time it takes for me to achieve my accomplishments because you have never allowed me what I need to show my full potential. I could give up and walk away from getting an education, but I am not a quitter. You can assist me in getting an education by making accommodations that have been proven to help me, or you can allow me to fail and hope I will go away. 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